- Année : / Volume : / Numéro : / Intimité et sexualité à l’adolescence

- The thesis presented in this theoretical essay is that the youth of our modern societies are at risk of “body-focusing”. To develop this thesis, two avenues are taken and integrated: the one analyzing the hazards of the adolescent normative development and the one exploring the consequences of the present social transformations on people’s life. It is proposed that, due to the lack of sufficient social support in our modern societies, some young people answer by a bodily “solution” for the developmental problem of the anguishes that assault them. This solution would put them more at risk to remain in one of the first phases of the adolescent psychosexual development, the one where sexuality is practiced as an aim in itself, without passion nor intimacy with the OTHER.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / In Earthen Vessels - an essay on boldness.

- This is a reflection on calling to be ourselves before God.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Formation en pastorale et développement du concept de soi: apôtres ou robots?

- Pastoral training is more than the acquisition of experiential skills, it is relating these skills to knowing how to live, how to be human. The pastoral identity is enriched by self-esteem. This makes the difference between an apostle and a robot.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Are Anglo Catholic priests more feminine? A study among male Anglican clergy, Pastoral Sciences.

- A random sample of 222 male clergy within the Church in Wales completed the short form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire including an index of Anglo Catholic orientation. Contrary to many theoretical predictions, there is no difference between the profile of Anglo Catholic clergy and the clergy whose not identified with the Anglo Catholic movement.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Église et sexualité, Sciences pastorales.

- In three separate sections, the article deals with the problem of what the church says or can say on the subject of sexuality. The first part tries to do justice to both the beauty and the complexity of sexuality. The second section treats the topic of Christian morals in living a sexual life in its fullness. The last part of the paper argues for a responsible morality on questions of sexuality. RÉSUMÉ


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Sensory deprivation in the desert and the laboratory, Pastoral Sciences.

- There is an astonishing similarity between the austerities applied by the fathers and mothers of Egypt Desert in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries AD and the techniques of sensory deprivation studied in psychological laboratories and secretly applied in prisons during the seventeenths. The desert monks develop some ways to find a positive and spiritual meaning to sensory deprivation.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Au-delà des interdits...accueillir la promesse qui s’entre-dit dans la relation, Sciences pastorales.

- Basing herself on the biblical text Mark 10, 3-9, the author reflects on fidelity in the married couple’s life, and on the daily nature of nourishment required for a good marital relationship. The article reflects on the co-humanity upon which the marriage partnership is founded, a life-long project crossed with promise.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Professional portrait of the practicing pastoral counselor and directions for the future, Pastoral Sciences.

- This study explores the actual practice of pastoral counsellors which obtain a Master ès Arts in pastoral counselling of the same university. The sample included 10 men and 21 women. The fields studied was concerning the employment place, the professional activities, the self esteem on a professional level, the integration of pastoral and a religious dimension, the preferred theoretical orientations, the characteristics of deserved population, the income provided by professional practice, the characteristics of supervision, the importance of personal therapy, continuous education and training. In general, pastoral counsellors are on the front line to respond to the needs of adolescents, young adults, people in middle age which have a socioeconomic status from low to average. Pastoral counsellors compromise usually with difficult life’s situations that are separation, divorce, dependancies and abuse. They perceive themselves mainly as pastoral counsellors. They manifest not much hesitation to include the religious dimension to their practice. Pastoral counsellors involve themselves in a continuous professional education et prefer integrated, systemic and humanists/experiential therapeutical approaches. The results have been discussed in reference to the sample itself and in reference to undertaken researches in the fields of clinic psychology and psychotherapy.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Le counseling à l’épreuve du social.

- The authors question an exclusively psychological orientation in pastoral counselling. In a consumer society where competition provides the norm for the individual, the authors recommend that new theoretical perspective with broader social dimensions need to confront psychological models in psychotherapy which see the client in this narrow individualist perspective. Based on their personal experience and a critical review of the literature, the authors develop their thought in three successive stages: 1.The current approach in counseling; 2.A critical analysis of the foundations of this approach and its underlying values; 3.Reflective guidelines for a new approach.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Women and depression, Pastoral Sciences.

- This article presents a brief survey on recent literature about nature and treatment of depression. In particular, it examines the theme of women and depression. In industrial societies, women have twice more depression than men. For many feminist psychologists, this highly grades demonstrate that depression cannot be a sickness, but an exaggeration of what western society demands to women. This article demonstrates the culmination of an exam over the feminist therapist’s perspective that plied for a cultural, social, psychical and cognitive approach concerning depression.


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / La variable religieuse en counselling et l’emprise sur l’existence.

- Therapeutic suppositions and assumptions may pre-empt therapists from sufficiently exploring what is important to clients who present with problems stated in religious language of related to religious values. Reflecting on the client’s process, capacity and product in meaning-making may highlight why consideration of the religious dimension is an important aspect of therapy. Moreover, it illustrates how the art of therapy can draw on both religious and psycho-social discoveries to facilitate well-being in religious clients as well as their therapists. RÉSUMÉ


- Année : 1996 / Volume : 15 / Numéro : 1 / Historical change and the roots of (dis) order.

- The authoress reviews recent research in social sciences which treats the relationship between social systems and historical perspective. She examines the implications of this research for pastoral professionals.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / The role of pastoral care on the multidisciplinary team.

- No resume available


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / Le délire religieux: approche pastorale.

- Although the term is frequently used in psychiatric circles, Areligious deliria@ is a complex concept. This article elaborates several general findings about this problem and insists on a pastoral attitude toward the delirious individual.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / Religious orientation and self-affirmation.

- Tillich’s theory on self-affirmation report three assertions: a realistic self-affirmation implies the confrontation of an ontological anxiety; to escape this reality is a deformation (neurosis); religion, in offering answers to existential questions, can Areduce the opening of man to reality...protect and nourish a potential state of neurosis@. The hypotheses demonstrate that resistence, a high degree of neurosis and a strong self-esteem indicates a powerful self-affirmation though not realistic. This result to: a clear and positive relationship between resistence and neurosis; the religious orientation as a predisposition to flimsiness between resistence and self-esteem; the end of religious orientation having a significant principal effect on neurosis. According to Tillich’s theory, the individuals which have a fixed religious orientation maintain a powerful self-affirmation (high degree of self-esteem) although unrealistic (high degree of resistence and neurosis).


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / Self-C.A.R.E. and the social construction of personal reality.

- This article focus on the fundamental change in the postmodern psychotherapy practice from the Aessence of the individual and the elaboration of a personal reality he/she chooses to give himself/herself. The important point for the elaboration of a new meaning of self is to construct meaning, according to the perspective of the one who talk about him/her in a congruent way and who reflects the fruit of a personal influence in the choice of a chosen objective. The author illustrates how this process can be greatly enhance by the paradigm which increase self-C.A.R.E. in terms of a meta-process that can facilitate the continuous discernment, the evaluation and the active decision inherent to a declared personal reality.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / La dimension maternelle de l’expérience religieuse - structuration psychique par l’Église-mère et la communauté.

- The place of the mother in religious desire has often been neglected in the research on this psychology of religion. Using pratistic sources on the Early Church, research on the rituals of baptism and monastic vows, the article re-examines the question of maternal nostalgia which, in part, animates religious experience. The help of clinical elements, the author illustrates the roles which the Church and the monastic community can play in the psychic structuring of religious experience.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / The perceiving function and Christian spirituality: distinguishing between sensing and intuition.

- A survey from the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) was given to 379 committed Christian adults, as well as an inventory to evaluate the religious distinguishing between Asensing and Aintuition Christians. The collected results demonstrate that the Asensing" gives more importance to the traditional aspects of Christian spirituality like religious ceremonies and personal praying; while the Aintuition attaches a greater value to experiential aspects of spirituality, like a fine sunset or a star filled sky. The results are discussed from a Jungian process of perception. The suggestions are offered to develop individual spirituality as well as a life in church.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / La théologie pratique de Thérèse de Lisieux, docteur de l’Église.

- Saint Theresa of the Infant Jesus was a woman of desire who transmitted to us by her life and writings a knowledgeable foundation for the love of Jesus Christ. By observing, interpreting and intervening, she followed an inductive method of practical theology. She interpreted what she observed and she lived this in the light of God’s Word to live in love. This article is a synthesis of her theology in its five dimensions: spiritual, practical, narrative, existential and hoping.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / Asceticism: the enigma of corporal joy in Paul Ricoeur and John of the Cross, Pastoral Sciences.

- Asceticism continues to be part of the practices of many people associated with different religious expressions. Down through the centuries these practices have been understood in various ways. All of them are intended to help the person grow and mature in some specific way. The various practices and rituals described as religious asceticism can and do make sense outside the context of any specific religious or faith system. It is this understanding that illuminates ascetial practices within the confines of a particular faith expression. Asceticism, in its religious context, only make sense once understood in its nonreligious meaning, or perhaps better, once understood in the context of human reality, generally speaking. Asceticism must be understood as a human and humanizing reality before it can make sense as pratised within the particular values of a religious system. Paul Ricoeur’s philosophical anthropology as well as John of the Cross’s theological anthropology is examined to demonstrate how we can appreciate the truth of these affirmations.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / Counselling with gay men and lesbians: An integrative approach.

- This article proposes an integrative approach in counselling with gay men and lesbians. Three elements are identified as essential to this approach. The first part deals with the need for nongay counselors to break the stereotypes of homosexuality In the second section, the author tries to capture and provides perspectives on gay-identity development, including its tasks and struggles, by reviewing the existing models suggested by clinicains and researchers. The last section summarizes guidelines and integrates techniques of various theoretical approaches for establishing an affirmative counseling with gay and lesbian clients.


- Année : 1997 / Volume : 16 / Numéro : 1 / Le désir de l’Autre en counseling pastoral. Une lecture de l’anthropologie analytique de Denis Vasse.

- This article introduces and articulates major themes in the psychoanalytic anthropology formulated though the writings of Denis Vasse. Antagonisms between counselling and psychoanalysis and between psychoanalysis and christian faith are broken down as deeper links are discovered. This allows to propose an anthropology, as a source of the pastoral specificity in counselling. As a conclusion, some characteristics of the contemporary society are questioned through the light of this specific anthropology.


- Année : 1998 / Volume : 17 / Numéro : 1 / Religion in secular society.

- This article aims to demonstrate to which extent religious attitudes concerning God and Jesus influence the values that touch economy, family, social criticism, hedonism and autonomy, and in what way this influence should be evaluated. A process of pluralism determines religious attitudes and societal values. To be able to see this plurality, a distinction has to be made between traditional and posttraditional attitudes and values. First, the attitudes towards God and Jesus are examined, then societal values and finally the relationship between those two. The conclusion demonstrates that only posttraditional attitudes influence posttraditional values. The liberation of Jesus' images influences a societal criticism, while pantheist images of God influence social criticism, hedonism and autonomy. The causal relationship between pantheism and social criticism, hedonism and societal autonomy is evaluated more ahead.


- Année : 1998 / Volume : 17 / Numéro : 1 / L’urgence de terminer le débat inachevé sur la clarification des valeurs.

- Through a brief overview of the history of values clarification and the associated pedagogical tools, the author raises questions about the pragmatic mentality that has always inspired this educational movement, how and to what extent can values clarification justify in theory its capacity to integrate with education that is Avertical@? The author revisits and updates an unfinished debate, providing insight into a solution in light of the work of Gilbert Durand on the process of symbolization.


- Année : 1998 / Volume : 17 / Numéro : 1 / The role of religious factors in adjustment to first-year university.

- This article aims to study the role of religious factors in the stress and ajustment process of students in their first-year university. First-year students monitored life events, appraisal and coping behaviour across four life domains: most impactful event, current living situation, dating and academic. Two religious variable were specified: the frequency to church attendance and the religious importance was not related to well-being (health), to the rate of stress concerning life’s events, or to the evaluation of the intensity in undesirable events. However, the importance of religion manifest itself in the prevention towards stress of life. These results demonstrate the importance of including religious variables in adaptation research among populations related to domains of life other than circumstances of extreme stress.


- Année : 1998 / Volume : 17 / Numéro : 1 / Déontologie relative aux données de recherche dans des entretiens du counseling pastoral: recherche de règles de conduite et interrogation sur un vision morale fondatrice.

- This article brings forward deontological, ethical and moral considerations regarding research practices using pastoral counselling interviews’ excerpts as raw data. While doing so, the researcher exposes research subjects to the risks of losing some protection regarding confidential issues. This article reviews concepts such as individual rights, informed consent and data confidentiality with the intent to propose conduct guidelines for the researcher. Examination of these concepts raises the necessity for moral foundations in the researcher’s conduct. A moral vision targeting full respect of human beings and their mystery appears to be the foundations for an ethical conduct. At the same time openness to mystery allows for research.


- Année : 1998 / Volume : 17 / Numéro : 1 / Pastoral care and the therapeutic dimension of Christian hope.

- Postmodernity had not resolved problems associated with anxiety, despair, feeling of powerlessness and nonentity. These problems have been questioned by existential philosophy and are still non resolved despite the postmodernity’s pretention of freeing history from all the “ism” by a process of deconstruction. The question is asked: could the comprehension of hope, as a therapeutic mode, solve the problems of a situation where statu quo leaves modern man in an emptiness and a meaningful future? The argument is that a possible eschatological interpretation of hope creates a dimension that stimulates a significant process of anticipation towards a meaningful future by a crucis theologia and a resurrectionis theologia. Christian hope is more than a desire or an expectation. It describes a way of being that reflects trust. Hence, the therapeutic dimension of hope.


- Année : 1998 / Volume : 17 / Numéro : 1 / Croissance personnelle et expérience de Dieu.

- Personal growth is intimately linked to the experience of God; becoming a free, autonomous, and responsible human being is an excellent means to access to the encounter with God. The religious phenomenon, faith as an existential attitude with regard to another/the Other - indeed, the human experience of the divine -, is not longer considered by psychology to be, as it once was, connected with an immature stage of humanity. The child has rebelled against a world turned banal; the human being refuses to live according to a purely horizontal vision. Psychology and medicine, which had forgotten the religious phenomenon in their clients and had dismissed the question of transcendence in their formation programs, have begun to emerge from the ideological chauvinism into which they used to fall when it came to religion. The aim of this work is to reconstruct the experience of God by taking into account personal growth and its intrinsic connexion with human experience. Further, it leads us to discover the need for an interdisciplinary labour, in collaboration and solidarity, between psychology and spirituality. The two hold the same objective in common: integral human development, i.e., the full flowering of the person.


- Année : 1998 / Volume : 17 / Numéro : 1 / Women and the new spiritual consciousness.

- The authoress reviews social sciences’ research in regards to psychological reconstruction of the feminine and the Spirit in postmodern society. She examines the consequences of this study for researchers in religious studies, spiritual directors, counsellors and pastoral professionals, women and man.


- Année : 1999 / Volume : 18 / Numéro : 1 / Imagerie mentale et intégration psychospirituelle: une étude de cas.

- Results of a phenomenological research have shown that clients in counselling yearn for goods which are oriented towards ultimate realities. Such yearnings can be expressed and summarized in terms of a AFundamental Value@ unique to each individual. The present paper presents results of such a research which demonstrated, through the use of A. Giorgi’s phenomenological method, that a Fundamental Value is identifiable in clients’s counselling session discourse. Recordings of five subjects’ counselling sessions were analyzed in that perspective, using three sessions with each subject, each of which differed in content - problem presented - and in time - covering up to three year period. It was found that subjects Fundamental Values were accounted for through expressions such as Security about one’s Dignity, Power over Pain, Freedom of Autonomy etc. Theoretical background and clinical application in pastoral counselling of the concept of Fundamental Values is presented.


- Année : 1999 / Volume : 18 / Numéro : 1 / Counseling et amnésie sociale.

- The program of formation in pastoral studies at Saint Paul University encompass the goal of enriching human experience not only in its psychological dimension but also in its spiritual and social dimensions. The experience of recent years has demonstrated, however, that psychology has occupied most of the territory, both in formation and in practice. The present article seeks to enlarge, in an exploratory way, the understanding of human problems in counselling, by emphasizing the importance of social components inherent to them. Our contribution proposes the introduction of a few basic sociological principles, in order to better understand the problems presented by people who come for counselling. By the same token, it could bring them to a more realistic and responsible vision of the situation.


- Année : 1999 / Volume : 18 / Numéro : 1 / Pastoral care in a postmodern world.

- The intent of this article is to focus on differences of approach and emphasis between what is now labelled the postmodern paradigm for pastoral care and previous perspectives is to highlight some noteworthy implications for pastoral practice. It brings out the emergent concerns that call for atentive pastoral reflection and concerted negociation. It also explores, in a preliminary manner, postmodern approach in pastoral care.


- Année : 1999 / Volume : 18 / Numéro : 1 / The scale properties of the MBTI form G (anglicised) among adult churchgoers.

- A sample of 429 students attending courses with personality and spirituality filled out the MBTI form G (anglicised). The data confirms the reliability the 8 scales of the MBTI measuring the biases for extraversion, intraversion, sensing, intuition, thinking and perceiving. Also, weaknesses have been identified with some items in 7 of the eight scales. This suggests that a larger refinement of the indicators would increase the research capacities of the instrument in personality and spirituality domains.


- Année : 1999 / Volume : 18 / Numéro : 1 / A False memory/recovered memory debate.

- The essential of the debate concerning Afalse memory/recovered memory@ is double: at what extent can we rely on memories which have been buried during decades and secondly, which factors can evaluate their reliability? The mechanism from which recovered traumatic memory is realize is a major question of this psychological debate. Differences in terminology come muddling the debate. The author sustains that progresses could be accomplished in resolution of this debate only after we take into account the meaning and the utilization of language.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 1 / Maladies et counseling pastoral.

- This article presents the theoretical justification as well as the therapy associated with pastoral counselling. At the theoretical level, existentialist philosophy and pastoral counselling stipulate that human existence is three-dimensional: somato-psycho-spiritual. In this context, i will briefly explain human existence, the body, hardship, suffering, anguish, sickness and pastoral counselling. The goal of the proposed model is to restore the three-dimensional aspect of human existence, that is to say to promote a therapy that not only needs, but on that heals and saves this aspect will be elaborated upon in the second part of the article, the model as such.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 1 / L’apport de la spiritualité dans le processus d’adaptation psychosociale chez les homosexuels infectés au VIH.

- Being given the diagnosis of VIF infection often provokes an existential crisis which begins to be resolved by engaging in a psychosocial process. This process unfolds with the accomplishment of different tasks helpful to rebuild the existence of the person affected. Based on empirical research, this paper identifies and describes the tasks of adaptation related to VIF infection. Among these tasks, spirituality plays a particularly significant role.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 1 / Défis de la pastorale de la santé au Québec.

- During the last thirty years, the pastoral service in the Quebec health system has had to live through many changes and to meet several challenges because of the changes which have affected Quebec society and the health system. This article discusses the principle transformations which have taken place in the practice of pastoral ministry to the sick and offers a preliminary look at the direction in which we should go.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 1 / An experience on male intimacy.

- All male professors, students, administrators and support staff of Saint Paul University were sent a questionnaire to ascertain their experience of male intimacy. Intimacy was defined as voluntary closeness with boundaries (Williamson, 1991). Significant differences were found on the scales of Closeness-to Mom, Other, Self and God for celibates, married, single and separated/divorced men. Celibates were closer to mothers and fathers; married men were closer to others, self and God. Separated/divorced men were most distant on all scales. Men reported least closeness with their fathers. Quantitative analysis and case study interviews revealed themes of 1) the need to overcome competition and reconnect with their father as a component of intimacy; 2) leaving home as a step towards intimacy; 3) the role of women in mentoring intimacy; and 4) the intimacy wounds for separated/divorced men. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on intimacy and men.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 1 / Personality profile of Anglican clergywomen in Canada and England: a cross cultural comparison on the EPQR-S.

- In their study, Mandy Robbins, Leslie Francis and Wendy Fletcher-Marsh, compared the personality profiles of Anglican clergywomen in Canada and England. They found that English clergywomen and the Canadian clergywomen performed differently on two of the Eysenck scales. The authors interpreted these differences to mean that the English clergywomen when compared to the Canadian clergywomen tended to be more stable but less tough minded. This study opens the door for further studies in the field.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 2 / Les croyances: élément-clé dans une approche systémique familiale de Calgary.

- This article introduces a systemic approach to assist couples and families with relational issues. This systemic approach stems from the Illness Beliefs Model developed by Wright, Watson and Belle (1996) with a postmodern perspective. With this model, the authors aim to assist health professionals in understanding how beliefs are at heart of health and healing for families experiencing health and psychosocial problems. The authors advocate that the identification of each family members’ beliefs and the assessment of the interaction between them should guide therapeutic interventions. Once the beliefs that constrain or facilitate the families’ ability to cope with their problem are identified, the therapist uses interventions that challenge these constraining beliefs and Abring forth or solidify the ones that re more facilitative. This article summarizes the main theoretical concepts that underly this therapeutic approach and illustrate through a case example some of the interventions that target beliefs that have a powerful and sustaining influence on the families’ experience of their relational issues.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 2 / Laissez...venir...: paradigme pour une écoute pastorale. Application au counseling pré-conjugal.

- This article aims to show how Jesus’s words to His disciples - Let (the little children) come (to me) - spoken in a very specific situation, may provide an opening and build a base for reflection on pastoral practice, and on listening in particular. It begins with a brief analysis of Jesus’s order. Part two, which covers the concept of listening in the Bible, facilitates the reader’s understanding of how Alet (them) come@ can become a precept and function as a paradigm (part three). A review of listening as a concrete relationship (part four) finally opens the way for an attempt, in the final section, to validate this paradigm through its application to the pre-marital counselling in particular, via the transcendence of fear and the notion of resiliency.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 2 / Le face à face conjugal et la spiritualité chrétienne.

- How can christian spirituality be embodied in a couple’s daily life? The mainstream developpements of christian spirituality, dominated by monastic life, comes in two basic modes: solitary and communal. The exclusive and intimate dimension of conjugal life has never been fully integrated to spirituality because of this long tradition. On the contrary, a genuine conjugal spirituality focusses on the couple as a dyad and on the specific dynamics built between the partners. The interaction process between the partners becomes a privileged occasion for spiritual exercises fairly different from religious devotions because they truly emerge from daily life challenges and beauties.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 2 / Assessing guilt among non-stipendiary Anglican clergy in Britain and Ireland: gender differences.

- The 20-item guilt scale proposed by the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) was completed by 304 male and 282 female non-stipendiary Anglican clergy during their first year of ordained ministry as deacons in Britain and Ireland. The data demonstrated that male clergy recorded higher scores on the guilt index in comparison with men in general. Female clergy recorded levels of guilt comparable with women in general. These findings are discussed in the light of two theoretical perspectives concerned with the relationship between guilt and religiosity and with the characteristically feminine profile recorded by male clergy.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 2 / Left in pain: atonement and transformation in palliative care using Charles Gerkin’s narrative hermeneutical theory.

- The article presents a case study of a Jewish woman in hospital who is palliative and in intense pain. It interprets the case of Mrs. K. in a way that demonstrates the practical theology of Charles Gerkin. Using Gerkin’s methodology the authors, both of whom are chaplains, set out to discover each for themselves, a narrative hermeneutical understanding of the pain and suffering of Mrs. K. First, a summary of Gerkin’s praxis/theory/praxis approach to pastoral care is presented. Attention is paid to the origins of Gerkin’s method in the thought of Paul Ricoeur and Hans George Gadamer. The process followed by the authors to understand and explain the case of Mrs. K is revealed. Second, drawing from their two standpoints: 1. Roman Catholic and family therapy 2. Christian Reformed and deep listening, various interpretations of the pain and suffering of Mrs. K. are provided. Third, the similarities and differences in understanding are discussed. Fourth, in the conclusion, there is the transformed praxis that results from the critical conversion.


- Année : 2000 / Volume : 19 / Numéro : 2 / Les enfants et la spiritualité: deux mystères...Développements récents de la question de la spiritualité des enfants, Sciences pastorales.

- searchers in children’s spirituality have moved from a complete denial of any of the children’s spiritual capacity, to an genuine openness to their spiritual experiences through the hearing to their stories, and to recognition of the opportunities and questions the children’s experiences raise for us adults.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 1 / Deep-rooted conflict theory and pastoral counselling: dealing with what one sees,Pastoral Sciences.

- Good theories help us Asee@ important realities that may be present in a given situation. Theories of deep-rooted conflict bring to consciousness dynamics present in a situation that demands psychotherapy. Human identity needs theory indicates the role of meaning, action, connectedness, security, recognition and being in the generation of conflict and its emotional analogues. René Girard’s mimetic theory reveals how desires are imitated from our Models who may become our mimetic Rivals or Doubles. It explains how we arrive at the satisfiers of our identity needs and how frustration within a relational system can lead to scapegoating. Hegemonic structures, in which a subjected group is dominated by another group, helps to understand what is happening at the relational level, particularly when one party wishes to break out of a hegemonic structure and the other is content with the Acommonsensical@ status quo. The concepts of mimetic structures of violence and of blessing show that identity-based conflict involve forces bigger than the individuals who are directly implicated. The implications of these theories for pastoral counsellors range from applications to clients to relationships among psychotherapists.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 1 / Des conflits, chemins de croissance? Un modèle biblique.

- Conflicts are usually considered harmful. The study of three controversies in the early Church reveals that some conflicts arise out of personal, cultural and societal differences within the Church. However, if conflicts are resolved properly, they can contribute to the growth of the Church as communion because the people involved are accepting of one another and enriched by the diversity. Nevertheless there are certain necessary conditions to assure a positive resolution of conflicts. The accounts of the resolution of the controversies in the Acts of the Apostles illustrate a model for discernment that may be used in every new situation that challenges the Church.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 1 / Vivre ensemble! Chacun pour soi? Gérer les conflits avec les autochtones/vivre en relation entre autochtones, Sciences pastorales.

- What are the roots of conflicts between Aboriginal Peoples and Euro-Americans? What type of social relations eliminates the very possibility of the type of conflicts generated in relationships of subordination and authority? The author answers these two questions from an historical and anthropological perspective. He draws on his experience of the Dene Tha of northwestern Alberta to bring to light the magnitude of the challenge raised by socio-cultural differences between Aboriginal Peoples and Euro-Americans to those who endeavour to create a new social order more respectful of the basic responsibilities and freedom of each and every human being.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 1 / The ways of mediators, Pastoral Sciences, 20-1 (2001), pp.73-92

- This article explores the nature of mediation and contrasts various approaches to the practice of mediation. The author begins by taking the reader through some of the history and defining features of mediation noting that over time the goals of mediation have expanded and changed. As a result we find contrasting, and at times competing, notions of mediation. The author argues that because mediation has become more pluralistic it is important that practitioners be explicit in making known the ideological assumptions and goals of their mediation work. Furthermore, she suggests that consumers become more informed about the types of mediation available to them. To this end, she examines four commonly cited approaches to mediation noting their similarities and differences.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 1 / L’ici-et-maintenant de Vittoz et l’accompagnement pastoral - pistes et perspectives, Sciences pastorales.

- This paper presents the vittozian approach related to the many approaches priviledged in our present times in helping professions and in filed education as well as in spiritual direction. The reflexion points the importance for the minster or therapist, of the awareness of one’s own experience of befriending of the self, within any Ahere and now@ situation with clients. The present paper demonstrates the vittozian approach and how it becomes for the therapist/or minister, an Aart de vivre@, as well as a path of constant awareness to befriend one’s own self. This living path is one of integrity and integration of the whole body, mind and soul, reminding the practician to befriend one’s own self through constant demands. Therefore, the vittozian approach through day to day practice, becomes a nurturing and empowering experience.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 1 / Marital therapy for family problems: pastoral counselling perspective on the process of change in constructivist couple therapy.

- This paper follows the didactic format of a marital case study to reflect on the nature and process of change associated with family systems theory and therapy. The paper develops the concept of role differentiation and illustrates its space dimension in a therapy strategy that shifts a parent-child presenting problem to the marital relationship. The concept of time perspective relates presenting problems to the flow of stress through the family life cycle, thus incorporating problems into the stream of life and refusing them separate status as distinct entities. Constructivist therapy integrates the space and time dimensions through re-visioning one’s life story and connects with the narrative tradition of Pastoral Counselling and its genius of savoring the moments of personal and relational transformation.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 2 / La vieillesse, un temps plein de vie.

- This article presents some psycho-sociological and spiritual challenges inherent to retired and aged adult’s life. They are coming from the conviction that the ordinary of the life is the major way that God takes to join the heart of anyone. This challenges are: the fidelity to oneself in defining his real and new identity, the art to cope with loss, the care of his health, the gradual dependance of the others involving the necessity to receive, the evaluation of his life, the new social usefulness and fecundity, the search of mortal sense and the adaptation to his lonelyness. These challenges constitute relevant key-points for pastoral care and faith education.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 2 / Deux modèles non invasifs de l’accompagnement pastoral applicables aux personnes âgées.

- Daily life offers various opportunities of informal counselling. The person confronted with a problem needs first of all to express himself or herself, then to understand himself or herself and the situation, and finally to come to terms with an element of solution to the problem. These basics of counselling are supplemented with a model of spiritual development having seven axes: openness to experience, mobilization of personal resources, empathy, detachment, flexibility, quest for meaning and interiority. As regards the elderly, they are faced with various challenges: becoming aware of their aging process, learning to transcend their ailments, adjusting to the loss of relatives and friends and maintaining their social network, readjusting their self image, establishing mutually satisfying relationships with relatives and friends, reviewing their life and adjusting to their diminishing autonomy. This type of counselling includes an intrinsic pastoral dimension which will be made more explicit by references to the Book of Qohelet and to the Gospel.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 2 / Silence et colère enfouis : la dramatique des abus sexuels subis durant l’enfance chez les personnes âgées,

- In the context of a research project on the interaction between the resolution of childhood sexual abuse and religious education, we have conducted several interviews with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. This enabled us to know better the experience of the elderly, particularly with regard to silence and anger. The recent imposing media coverage of certain causes of childhood sexual abuse in Quebec has provoked elaborate reactions on the part of these persons which clearly indicate the collective journey we have don’t since their childhood and their feelings towards it. The testimonial of one of these survivors finally offers a better understanding of the relationship to God in such circumstances and allow a different reading of God’s silence.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 2 / Faciliter les rencontres pastorales avec les personnes âgées et/ou malades.

- What is the place of the Bible during a pastoral visit with the sick or elderly? Although not responding directly to this question, the author imparts a way of gently introducing biblical themes during an interview. Specifically, he talks about how to utilize postcards of landscapes or flowers with associated biblical verse to facilitate an individual’s self-narrative. Such an approach can particularly help the elderly reflect on their lives and work toward a sense of life balance and personal integration.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 1 / La relation, restauration de la capacité de relation.

- This article talks about healing in a specific way : that of a new or a renewed experience of being in relationship with the Other, both human and divine. In this process of healing, the accent is on the Holy Spirit : the Breath that cleanses a person and leads them to lay aside their dysfunctionings, a Breath that restores – as in the story of healing of the cripple at the Pool of Bethsaida (John 5,1-18) which the author studies in depth. It is an all-powerful Breath that fully restores the ability of being in communication, in so far as the person agrees. They can thus achieve an autonomy-in-relationships, whatever their handicaps, and heal of what had cut them off from others and the Infinite Other.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 1 / Religion et guérison en Afrique noire.

- In all religions practised in Black Africa, healing, prevention of misfortune and rectifying its consequences play a decisive role. In each of the three great religious groups found in that part of the world (Islam, Christianity and Primal religion), there are people who heal with plants and other natural resources. There are also « soothsayers » endowed with mysterious powers to relieve all kinds of human ailments. Their efficacy can be seen in a context where modern medecine is still inaccessible to many, and where it is believed that illness, therapy and healing have a spiritual dimension. This article attempts to outline that context using examples which illustrate how aboriginal medecine and the christian ministry of healing are means of outreach to people in their misery.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 1 / Le côte à côte de la guérison.

- Within the interior chaos fuelled by feelings of victory and defeat; losses of persons, référence points and relationships, the internal masculine, musicien shepherd and warrior, goes in search of a feminine shelter. It is what will help and heal, and will form a unified whole, two opposites one with the other, to bring about life. When all seems to be going wrong, when plans continuously come to naught, when soul and body experience within themeselves the echoes of their respective sufferings and tear each other apart, the seed is there in the very depths. It can grow in encounters, in dreams, through stories, the Bible. That helps us come together and recognize within us that which has been ignored, rejected, or violated for years. It proclaims the possible rebirth by an encounter with the "other" in us, a saving birth blessed by God.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 2 / L’Inventaire de l’Image de Dieu: comparaison des versions française et anglaise et utilisation pour le travail clinique et pastoral et pour la recherche.

- The God Image Inventory is a psychometric instrument designated to measure traits of the unconscious God Image for research and clinical and pastoral use. This instrument, build by Richard T. Lawrence and translated from English to French by Marie-Line Morin, comprises 8 scales and 156 items. It was designed on the basis of Ana-Maria Rizzuto’s distinction between the God concept the God image. This article presents reliability and standardization analysis results of the French version of the Inventory compared with those of the original English version. A general idea of the context in which it can be used clinically is given, followed by a presentation of the potential for research in pastoral counselling or other clinical settings of a 36 item short edition (God Image Scale – GIS) of the Inventory. The recommendation to use the GIS for research is supported by the factorial analysis’ results of this edition.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 2 / Le trouble de la personnalité narcissique: ses caractéristiques psychologiques, ses images de soi et ses images de Dieu.

- This article presents a description of the narcissistic personality disorder based on object relations theories and Young, Klosko & Weishaar (2003)’s cognitive model on early maladaptive schemas. Images of the self and images of God, in the narcissistic personality are then explored based on this theoretical context. It is suggested that the narcissistic personality disorder is not limited to psychological characteristics and includes a spiritual componant. A case-study is presented.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 2 / « Apprivoiser son ombre ». Convergences significatives entre les conceptions du processus thérapeutique selon Carl R. Rogers, Carl G. Jung et J. Monbourquette.

- « Apprivoiser son ombre » ("To befriend one's shadow") : this is the mysterious and catching title that Jean Monbourquette chose for one of his last works. Monbourquette indicates the necessity for each human being, who desires to increase humanely and spiritually, to enter into contact with and befriend the dark, unloved or inhibited side of one's personality. This is, in essence, a good idea and one that both C. Rogers and C. Jung would likely embrace (or at least not deny). The author of this article illuminates the potential for convergence between Monbourquette's conception of the therapeutic process (and Jung by association since Jung's work is the inspiration of this Canadian priest and psychologist) and that of Rogers as illustrated in his works (e.g, Counseling and psychotherapy). In his way, the author contribues to the growth of those who think, fundamentally, and in a way, independently of the different schools of psychotherapy. He believes that anybody, who embarks upon the thérapeutique process, must engage certain stages which capture uniquely a similar final reality regardless of how they are named by specific theoretical approaches.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / Religion et politique: regard objectif, regard subjectif.

- The author approaches the relationship between “religion and politics” from two directions. First, from an objective stance, “religion and politics” concerns the role of religion in instances of political conflict. During the 20th century, many sociologists predicted that religion would weaken or even disappear with the advent of the industrial age. No one had foreseen the important role that religion would come to play on the stage of international politics. Second, from a subjective stance, “religion and politics” refers to the role of the Christian and Catholic faith in encouraging one’s engagement in the political domain. Here, the author addresses these two issues: the role of religion in international politics and the role of religious faith in political engagement.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / Réflexion sur l'engagement des chrétiens et des chrétiennes des communautés ecclésiales de base (CEB) au Brésil.

- Can the Christian faith and the realm of politics truly work together? From the context of the Ecclesiastical Communities of Brazil’s intense efforts at studying the implications of pastoral practice, V. Asselin invites the reader to reflect on the necessary links between these two realities: faith and politics. Refusing to see problems solely as internal to the Church, while attempting to keep an objective view of social engagement without appearing disinterested, the members of the ECB try to hold onto these two ends at the same time: realize that the Kingdom through political action can encourage the principles of Christian faith. V. Asselin puts forth several key questions on this issue. Why are the bishops so afraid of the politic domain? Where must religion and politics must interfer at all costs? Is it necessary to work politically with others who do not share the same faith? What can the Christian Kingdom and Hope contribute to social construction ?


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / Le mouvement pentecôtiste et la politique au Brésil.

- Relations between politics and religion in the Pentecostal movement in Brazil is analysed in three ways. First, at the local level, social problems and the history of democracy set up the conditions for the adoption of the traditional Pentecostal vision of politics as a low priority. At the global level, the conditions of existence in this fragmented world favour a very personal stand in all domains of life, including spiritual life. Finally, the conversion experience brings about a new commitment to community life and contributes to democratic practices which could lead to political implication at other levels. [Pentecostal Movement and Politics in Brazil]


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / L'accomplissement spirituel comprend aussi l'engagement politique: jalons d'interprétation.

- This article concludes the present issue of Pastoral Studies on «Politics and Religion». The first part of the article offers a reading of the previous testimonies on the very meaning of political action from a Christian perspective. It is an attempt to "understand" the nexus of good reasons that make political action not only a reasonnable behavior but also a duty for progressists Christians. The second part explores some problematic aspects of political activism: (1) should political action necessarily be undertaken outside the traditionnal ecclesial institutions? (2) how receptive the general public will be while observing political initiatives made in the name of Christian values from a more leftist world-vision?


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / Ferment spirituel du féminisme.

- Considering it both unjust and damaging that feminism should be considered merely as a product of social evolution, demographic or technical, the author here attempts to retrace its own particular spiritual course. With the help of numerous quotations, she traces the manifestations of what she calls “spiritual ferment” across the centuries and in different cultures; those cries, revolts, words, manifestos and women’s visions which constitute, well before the concept of “feminist”, this ensemble of good sense which contributes so broadly to the human experience in its diversity, unity and solidarity. Drawing on “herstory”, she illustrates the principal themes which trace the paths of personal and collective women’s liberation from the denial of unconscious malaise, alienation, and the unhappiness and shame attached to her sex, to the eco-feminism of today, a holistic project which deploys an alternative view of femininity, sexuality, humanity, the cosmos and God, Absence or another Presence.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / Etty Hillesum: désirs sexuels et Désir spirituel.

- Etty Hillesum, a young Jewish woman living in Amsterdam died on November 30th 1943 in Auschwitz at the age of twenty-nine. She left behind a diary and some letters. Passionate and unstable, Etty feels a profound discontentment. She starts a therapy with Julius Spier who shows her to recognize a mysterious Presence within herself which she chooses to call God. However Etty feels awkward about conciliating her sexual and spiritual life. She enters into a new kind of relationship with herself as well as with others. This shall bring her toward a spiritual maternity in a total surrendering of herself out of love for others, a love beyond feelings: an unconditional love.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / L'inter-spiritualité féministe.

- Focusing on the experience of a Montreal feminist collective formed of women belonging to ten or so different spiritual and religious traditions, this article deals with feminist inter-spirituality which issued from the world-wide feminist solidarity context. As a participant in the group and in her own Catholic perspective, the author stresses on three aspects of feminist inter-spirituality. Firstly, it calls each woman to a remarkable spiritual and feminist liberty as a result of the multi-spiritual context in which she moves. Secondly, it allows for a stumbling block of difference to emerge between some feminists that are also different from one another. How to live it? How do women mutually educate themselves to fight against cultural subordination? Thirdly, feminist inter-spirituality can inspire a renewed vision of the feminist and Christian movement which is itself open and inter-spiritual.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / Santé et famille: l’invisibilité du travail des femmes.

- This article was written in order to reflect about women’s work on family health. We take under consideration the hypothesis that the care activities are a work and produce a specific knowledge of the disease. We observed in two comparative researches France/Brazil (Scavone, Thébaud-Mony, Giannasi, INSERM/CNPq, 1997 and INSERM/FAPESP, 2000) that the interviewed women had : assumed the seek for care for their companions touched by a disease related to asbestos (mineral that provokes cancer and which is produced and widely consumed in Brazil) ; the administration of the home cares ; the relationship with the doctors and and with the health institution ; the support of the family. In conclusion, the “profane sanitation work ” exerced by these women is not recognized neither socially nor by themselves remaining in the invisibility of the domestic work.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / Sens personnel, rétrospective de vie et projet de création chez une personne âgée cancéreuse.

- Life retrospective has been identified as a significant contributor to adaptation in later life and to the integration of life moments. According to Wong (1989), personal meaning is one of the few domains where growth remains possible in spite of physical and emotional losses in old age. Life retrospective along with logotherapy and the development of a creative project (a guided autobiography) were used with an elderly patient suffering from terminal cancer. Results suggest that this procedure promoted self-adaptation, reconciliation with certain unresolved conflicts from the past and discovery of personal meaning. It also allowed the patient to leave a personal legacy to her children.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / Expérience mystique,psychose et interention clinique: une étude anthropologique.

- One day or another, pastoral counselors are faced with persons speaking of extraordinary religious experiences. Therefore, counsellors need clear clinical landmarks in order to distinguish authentic religious experiences from delusion processes. This study shows how the psychoreligious anthropology proposed by the author in his doctoral dissertation enlightens the problem. Referring to Denis Vasse’s anthropology and to the author’s clinical practice, clinical guidelines are drawn in order to help in the discerning of an authentic religious experience from pre-psychotic and psychotic manifestations.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / Former à l’accompagnement spirituel des malades: plus qu'une question de connaissances.

- The author wishes to explore some conditions of spiritual care in an hospital setting today. Diversity of cultures and spiritual back-grounds of patients, diversity of approaches in the interdisciplinary team lead to specific approaches from the spiritual care givers. Those approaches will be described from CPE students’ experience and will especially concern the way of listening in a global way and the necessity of a deep and rooted spiritual experience. By doing so it will set some important learning goals for spiritual care givers.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / Évaluer l'attitude d'étudiantes françaises à l'égard du christianisme: l'échelle de Francis.

- A sample of 462 female French students 30 completed the French translation of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data provide preliminary evidence to support the reliability and validity of this instrument and commend it for further use in studies conducted among young people in France.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 2 / Le décès d’un enfant: intégrer une dimension spirituelle aux interventions familiales.

- The loss of a child certainly represent the worst human experience of grief. The utilization and the use of peoples’ spiritual resources in that condition, could diminish their suffering and help these families to recover from that experience. The aim of the present article is to propose family systemic interventions which are pointed towards the emergence of spiritual resources in order to help these parents to cope with this tragic event. Adding a spiritual dimension to the professionels’ interventions working with that clientele can sensitize people to that neglected resource and comfort them.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 2 / Le paradigme de l’égalité entre les sexes et la fragmentation familiale: nouvelles pratiques de solidarité.

- This article, based on a qualitative research of parents who hold shared custody, opens up a new mode of interpretation of the phenomenon of family fragmentation. To what extent will this fragmentation engender new modes of family solidarity? The author maintains that certain practices or habits springing out of this type of shared custody would point in that direction. However, society’s image or model of family life does not yet allow for such a complete understanding.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 2 / Le counseling pastoral au risque des défis de la famille contemporaine.

- Modern marriages and families are greatly determined by society. Nevertheless, in issues of divorce, pastoral counseling is still very much influenced by clinical psychology, and by individualistic trends well known in our Western liberal societies. Taking into account research data inspired by social philosophy, we present a sociological analysis which takes into account the interconnection between objective phenomena, namely family and socio-economical structures, and the subjective reality of the person. Without questioning the necessary relevance of psychological interventions, we propose a complementary and preventive approach in pastoral counseling which, we think, offers a better understanding of conjugal difficulties faced by today’s families. In order to illustrate our theoretical approach, we have created a typical case study: this hypothetical example can help to identify, we hope, some useful avenues of intervention for resolving problems faced by today’s couples.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 1 / Des expériences de transcendance à la conscience mystique.

- This article begins by distinguishing between transcendent experiences, which are transitory, and mystical consciousness, which is permanent, although prayerful people are often unaware that it has been given to them. We mention criticisms of transcendent experiences and we concede that the potential of its various types is unequal. Based on William James, we stress the role that they exercise of breaking through the confinement of ordinary consciousness. With respect to divine action, we adopt the Thomist position – rather than the Barthian one – that graces are offered during transcendent experiences which are not shaped by the Word of God. The concept of religious experience, found in Bernard Lonergan, helps to situate mystical consciousness among other forms of consciousness. Transcendent experiences may lead to mystical consciousness, but they need to be critically integrated thanks to a judicious pastoral guidance.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 1 / Le chemin de l’amour. Témoignage sur mon expérience spirituelle.

- In this article, the author presents a testimony of her spiritual experience. In an intimate way and at the same time deepy related to the society in which we live, she first explains the meaning of the spiritual dimension in her life. Then she shares with us a few significant landmarks of her journey from early childhoold until now, as we find ourselves at the heart of a planet in crisis and profound transformation. Far from offering already made answers, the author takes us back to the mystery of the spiritual experience in our individual, collective, planetary and universal life.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 2 / Les abus sexuels, un drame spirituel.

- With a review of the literature as a starting point, the article suggests a reflection on the tragic spiritual effects of sexual abuse of children. First of all, the author recalls the psycho-social consequences of such abuse and introduces the concept of spirituality to which reference will be made. Secondly, three spiritual tragedies resulting from sexual abuse are explored: the appropriation of power – which is not usually considered to be a spiritual tragedy – the taking over of the victim’s body, and the betrayal of confidence. The author then addresses a number of theological questions related to these effects and which are raised by the victim’s transferring to the divinity his or her relationships with the abuser and the milieu as well as the emotional content of such relationships. The article concludes by highlighting certain pastoral orientations which have emerged out of surveys carried out among the victims.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 2 / La violence faite aux femmes dans l'Église. Inconduite sexuelle par des membres du clergé.

- How should our Church communities deal with incidences of violence or sexual misconduct involving their pastor and a woman from their parish? Because two adults are involved, can we say that these women consent to a sexual relationship with the priest? Based on the research undertaken by the author with women who experienced incidences of sexual violence involving clergy and the work of the Centre for Prevention of Family and Sexual Violence in Seattle, WA, to educate the public about this thorny issue, this article suggests possible avenues for people in pastoral services to help both the victims and the community heal when there has been sexual abuse in the context of a pastoral relationship.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 2 / Au coeur du conflit: le regard non violent.

- The criterion defining a non-violent attitude is respect for the human being. This can be fruitfully experienced through the four dimensions of the “non-violent vision”, a vision that is true, and thus active : a) perceive the other’s truth, and tell it to him (her); b) Recognize and express one’s own failing, make oneself humble; c) perceive my truth and tell it; d) perceive the mistakes, the evil in the other and propose a concrete solution. With non-violence, multiple techniques and trainings can help daring such a vision. Non-violence is radically distinct from passivity. So-called “non-violent” means, used for tactical reasons, are a mere sly violence. Non-violence questions the Christian narrative on love. It expresses the heart of Christ’s teachings, but also of the Old Testament as it merely goes about a way of faith : the gamble of true love.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 2 / Abus sexuels et violence en milieu autochtone: l'expérience de Manawan.

- The unprecedented experience of the Atikamekw First Nation of Manawan in the province of Quebec is the history of a long and on-going process of social reconstruction in order to end the evil of familial and sexual violence and its disastrous effects. Taken within the context of a colonial history characterized by major trauma, as well as the effects of a period of alienation and aggression in residential schools, the history of the Manawan community during these last ten years is one of rehabilitation: deconstructing the feelings and effects of alienation, victimization and responsabilization which had become a way of life. The first steps in this process of conscientization are attributable to a group of courageous women who broke the wall of silence around the sexual abuse which they had endured. Thanks as well to the encouragement of the Mikisiw Cercle for Hope, the process attempts to break the intergenerational cycle of violence and to rediscover balance and harmony within and around self. This tremendous challenge gives rise to a whole process of healing and reconciliation which not only goes to the root of the evil, but also because of its all encompassing nature, addresses every dimension of the human person and of the social structure. Indeed, for the Manawan community, this re-appropriation of their culture, of their spirituality and of their identity, is more than a project. It is a call to hope, to life, to a healthy life in Manawan.


- Année : 2001 / Volume : 20 / Numéro : 2 / Une vision du counseling pastoral. Entrevue avec Yvon St-Arnaud, O.M.I.

- Yvon Saint-Arnaud est bien connu pour son apport unique en counseling pastoral depuis plus de 30 ans. Nous avons voulu lui donner la parole et faire profiter nos lecteurs et lectrices de sa large expérience dans le domaine. Cette entrevue s'est déroulée en mais 2001 alors que Caroline terminait sa Maîtrise en counseling pastoral à l'Université Saint-Paul. Ce texte se veut à la fois un hommage et une manière de reconnaître tout ce qu'il a apporté dans le champ de la psychologie et de la spiritualité à Saint-Paul, dans d'autres lieux universitaires et à l'occasion de nombreuses sessions données au Canada et ailleurs.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 1 / Intimité et sexualité à l’adolescence

- The thesis presented in this theoretical essay is that the youth of our modern societies are at risk of “body-focusing”. To develop this thesis, two avenues are taken and integrated: the one analyzing the hazards of the adolescent normative development and the one exploring the consequences of the present social transformations on people’s life. It is proposed that, due to the lack of sufficient social support in our modern societies, some young people answer by a bodily “solution” for the developmental problem of the anguishes that assault them. This solution would put them more at risk to remain in one of the first phases of the adolescent psychosexual development, the one where sexuality is practiced as an aim in itself, without passion nor intimacy with the OTHER.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 1 / Genèse, évolution et manifestations de la pudeur. Perspectives psychanalytiques

- In spite of the arguments put forward in view to disqualified it, modesty reappears under new forms at each generation. Thus it seems that we cannot completely do without it. However, modesty is a phenomenon which is little studied and often not well understood. Trying to remedy to this deficiency, we turned ourselves towards psychoanalysis in order to bring to light the genesis, the evolution and the manifestations of modesty, as well as its role in the amorous relationship. To conclude, we will see the signification given to the experience of shame in the first narrative of the book of Genesis.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 1 / Sex in the City: Human Trafficking and the Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children

- The human trafficking and sexual exploitation of women and children is a contemporary form of slavery. This trade in human persons is the third largest underground activity after sales in drugs and armaments. No country is immune to the problem: all nations function as receiving, sending or transit sites. Women and children are reduced to lucrative commodities, bought and sold in a illicit trade that accrues billions of dollars annually. Victims of deceit and corruption, they are coerced to work as prostitutes in debt bondage in conditions of extreme violence and abuse. The sexual slavery of women and children is a complex problem: it cannot be abstracted from the context of a global community that is shaped by immense disparities in wealth, power and security, and where women and children are often socially, economically and politically vulnerable. The Palermo Protocol provides an international definition of human trafficking and aims to harmonize strategies to prevent and protect trafficked persons, and to prosecute offenders. In response to this serious crime, there is hope in the global steps that have been taken toward its eradication. Pastoral ministry has a pivotal role to play in furthering this hope through gender equity and economic justice initiatives.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 1 / Exclusion et ritualité. Études de cas.

- This article is a case study based on two narratives obtained from the main caregivers of two persons with HIV-aids, the first one in Quebec and the other one in Brasil. The two narratives are illustrations of the situation of social and moral exclusion of the sick persons, and of the possibilities and limits of rituality as part of the caregiving process, within two highly contrasted societies, one modern and the other traditionnal.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 2 / Happy but exhausted? Work-related psychological health among clergy

- A sample of 6,680 clergy from Australia, England and New Zealand completed two indices of work-related psychological health, the Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry (negative affect) and the Satisfaction in Ministry Scale (positive affect), together with the abbreviated form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. The data supported the internal consistency reliability of the two indices of work-related psychological health and demonstrated the power of Eysenck’s dimensional model of personality to predict those clergy most likely to be susceptible to high levels of emotional exhaustion and to low levels of satisfaction in ministry. These findings suggest that routine personality testing could be employed to identify clergy most vulnerable to the stresses of ministry in a rapidly changing world and to promote better work-related psychological health among clergy.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 2 / When aging parents come back to us: Family attachment perspectives.

- The care of aging parent(s), whether now sick or dying, can cause distress in a family system. One adult child is often “recruited” to do the caregiving. These adult caregivers can feel sandwiched between caring for aging parents and helping their own children launch into adulthood. In order to better understand the dynamics of adult caregiving, sociological perspectives are presented as well as relevant issues such as caregiving stages, caregiving burden, recruitment of the adult child, and spirituality. A careful review of family of origin theory and attachment theory might better enable a family system, adult children and aging parent(s), to work through the strengths and stresses of caregiving. Attachment in Family Theory (AFT) outlines relevant principles, family dynamics and questions for the future that may better educate and prepare families for this caregiving role with aging parent(s).


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 1 / The Healing of the Soul: Anthropological Insights from Four Different Traditions

- This article gives four cases of the healing of the soul drawn from anthropological field studies: among the Kung of the Kalahari desert, in a shamanic group in rural Malaysia, among the Catholic Charismatics of America, and at performances of psychodrama, also in America. The philosophy behind anthropology as a science has changed in the last three decades, especially in the anthropology of religion, humanistic anthropology, and the anthropology of consciousness. Anthropologists have begun to take seriously the religions of the people they study instead of regarding those religions as only worthy of structuralist, interpretive, and symbolic study. They themselves have sometimes experienced what the field people experience, for instance, bodily healings and rituals that heal the soul; and certain of them have actually become practitioners in the religions concerned. In the four cases here, research has resulted in close-up accounts of the healing events. I present the accounts and show the visionary experience that healers and sufferers undergo, suggesting that much benefit would accrue for those in pastoral work from openness toward the “technology of the sacred” in other religions and communities.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 1 / Bodies and Souls: Jewish Healing in America

- During the 1980s, a new kind of Jewish healing began to emerge in the United States. Initiated approximately two decades ago, most likely synchronously by several small groups of feminists, rabbis and rabbinical students on the East and West coasts, the Jewish healing movement is more a convergence of projects and programs developed by individuals around the country than an institutionalized umbrella organization. While there is a great deal of variation and diversity, several themes permeate American Jewish healing contexts. These themes include community, embracing of bodily experience, and culture as a site for healing. This paper explores the Jewish healing work of a rabbi, a social worker, and a nurse.


- Année : 2005 / Volume : 24 / Numéro : 1 / Hope in the Midst of Uncertainty: Theological Reflection on Women’s Experiences in the Newfoundland and Labrador Fishery Crisis

- Healing involves social and ecological aspects in the context of the suffering of people in Canada and the ongoing ecological crisis in this country and around the world. In an effort to speak about redemptive healing in the context of social despair and hope and in the midst of ecological disaster, we can draw hope from women’s experiences. This effort to locate hope in the midst of crisis involves a reconciliation between us, the earth and the divine. This effort to create hope for our times calls for a new vision of redemption which takes into account the contextual experiences of women. We can find possibilities for hope in considering women’s experiences in the midst of the collapse of the Newfoundland and Labrador fishery. Theological hope is found in a new understanding of our relationship with the nonhuman community. Community, both human and other life communities, is at the heart of this new vision of what constitutes hope in the midst of crisis, now and for the future.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 2 / Psychodynamic Processes in Religious and Spiritual Life

- God, in Jewish and Christian tradition, is a transcendent being, who exceeds the power of the senses. Human beings are incapable of direct apprehension of God's being or of his communications to them. God himself, in all his power, must submit to means of communication compatible with the human being He is addressing. God's message must suit the means his people have to receive and understand what He is telling them. Any form of God's expression that does not conform with this requirement will not reach the human creature. Unable as we are to have any sensory experience of God, we must resort to indirect ways of connecting, by means of dynamically analogical processes, experiences we have with essential people in our lives with the God presented by religion as existing, feeling, desiring and, acting effectively in nonvisible reality. His personal communications to his faithful are mediated, externally and intrapsychically, by the complexities of relational life with others. Spiritual life consist in relational dynamic processes of seeking God and trying to discern his personal communications in the broader pattern of our relation to creation, Scripture, and religious institutions.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 2 / Pastoral Care of Bess in “Breaking the Waves”: A Contextual Practical Theological Approach

- The story of Bess, the protagonist in von Trier’s (1996) film Breaking the Waves, provokes viewers to become practical theologians who draw upon both psychological and theological perspectives to understand the ways in which she uses her religious faith to cope with suffering. Using a contextual method of practical theology, I present the case study of Bess. Rizzuto’s (1979, 2003) psychodynamic perspective on the formation of representations of God highlights the psychodynamic, familial, and religious origins of Bess’s relationship with God. Neville’s (1996) theology of broken symbols becomes the means for assessing theologically Bess’s representation of God and her understanding of atonement as false symbols that maintain a web of violence. The case study concludes with psychological and theological strategies for healing and resisting violence.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 2 / A Comparison of Clergy and Married Couple Leaders’ Perceptions of Premarital Education.

- Over the last three decades, family life educators, clergy, and married couples themselves have all agreed that quality marital preparation programs are needed. The purpose of this study was to compare clergy and married couple leaders’ perceptions of premarital education. A survey was sent to all clergy and married couples currently involved in marriage preparation program in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vancouver, British Columbia and returned by mail. The survey asked about respondents’ beliefs and thoughts about marriage preparation. The sample consisted of 45 priests and 23 married couple leaders. Married couples thought that small group discussions were a more effective format than clergy did. They also considered the expression of feelings as a more important topic for marriage preparation than priests. Priests perceived assessment instruments as more effective than couples, and thought content on sexuality and sexual issues, learning about Catholic religious teachings, parenting skills and sharing expectations about friendships with others more salient. Finally, recommendations are offered.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 2 / An Investigation into Diocesan Vocational Satisfaction and Stability : Active vs Inactive Priests

- A model of marital processing was utilized to study inactive (left the priesthood) and active priest’s vocational satisfaction and stability. Two cohorts of active priests and a cohort of inactive priests completed demographic, personality, coping and priestly sentiment measures. An active priest’s family of origin and attachment style were predictive of Priestly Satisfaction for those ordained 20 years or more, whereas, an active priest’s coping strategy were predictive of vocational satisfaction for the recently ordained. However, there were five predictors that distinguished inactive priests from active priests. Inactive priests started seminary at a younger age, experienced less parish administrative stress, worked fewer hours beyond parish duties, used less support to cope with stress and had a low desire to stay a priest defined as struggling with celibacy, loneliness and thinking about alternative life-styles.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / Can Religion Shape Politics? Or is Religion being Shaped by Politics in an Age of Globalization

- The Canadian bishops’ social justice statements as well as similar ecumenical statements receive scant public or media attention these days. This is largely due to the fact that Canadians now live in a globalized neoliberal market culture that seems determined to have market values penetrate every aspect of individual and societal life, often using the symbols and values of religion to do so. This while on the world stage there has been a dramatic explosion of religious and faith interests back into the public forum, at times in forms that frighten us. Much of it is in reaction to the negative excesses of economic globalization. New forums for dialogue between religion and science and between religion and development continue to multiply. The challenge for believers and for faith institutions is how to organize effectively interfaith and ecumenical dialogue and cooperate together with other non-profit organizations (NGOs) on a global scale to champion urgent ecological, social justice, human rights and peace causes, but perhaps especially to counteract the technological hubris of a small arrogant western elite that would shape the whole world and all its peoples in its own image.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / This Sacred Earth at the Nexus of Religion, Ecology and Politics

- None of the world religions developed the resources to address the magnitude of ecological or cultural crises. Religions in their current form do not have the ability to respond to the exigencies of our time, but we cannot respond without them. This is the challenge. This article examines several connections between religion, ecology and political transformation. After describing different political consequences and social actions that result from distinct ecological paradigms using the example of climate change, the article presents two emerging fields of inquiry that offer unprecedented religious insights; evolution and inter-religious consciousness. Each changes the shape of the religion, ecology and politics nexus. The earth is demanding attention. The nexus of religion, ecology and politics is critical for the future. We can be inspired by the elegance and gracefulness of earth-life, imbued with the sacred presence that animates all life, and impelled to political action.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / The Politics of Pauline Studies : From Positivism to the Post-Modern.

- Not so long ago, the leading lights of biblical scholarship seemed to be almost all reading from the same methodological page. Even today, many scholars continue to work under the assumption that biblical texts have a single determinate meaning created by their authors which may be recovered through the use of recognized scholarly methods. The recently published Handbook of Post-Modern Biblical Criticism (Chalice Press, 2000) presents some forty approaches and authors which have allowed the fundamental assumptions of traditional exegesis to be undermined. Historical approaches to the Bible have not gone unscathed in the mêlée. My paper will explore ways in which this new trend in exegesis has allowed political dimensions of the biblical text to emerge which earlier had gone unnoticed. These insights change not only our ways of perceiving the world behind the biblical text, but also the political dimensions of the world into which the text is received. Pauline studies will serve as an illustration of ways in which these new assumptions are challenging the supposedly objective and apolitical interpretations of that particular corpus. The work of Richard Horsley and like-minded scholars serves as an example of this new historical consciousness.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / Christianity and Modern Politics.

- This text, abundantly documented, is a spontaneous cry of the heart against a perverse globalization of the market system, against the decline of democratic society, against the cult of individualism, with all their devastating effects on the Christian values of solidarity. Despite the author’s pessimistic view of western culture, whose desolate state he details, and despite his sharp criticism of his Church whose encroaching bourgeois values he denounces, believes nevertheless in the possibility of transformation. He appeals for political action as a moral imperative. *Christianity has the power with its symbols of radical discontent to criticize modernity and link it to its powerful memory and story. Life with God must propel Christians into the humanization of the world.


- Année : 2004 / Volume : 23 / Numéro : 1 / Jung on the Self as the Basis of a New Spirituality

- The current interest in the psychology of hope shown by the psychoanalytic community in fact betrays the inability of contemporary societal spirituality, religious or secular, to offer such hope to their constituencies. The paper argues that widespread hopelessness was also the case in Jung’s later life and that his mature psychology was a sustained effort to recover the basis not only of hope but of a living faith, charity and wisdom from the resources of the psyche itself. Jung grounded such recovery on the psychodynamics of the ongoing incarnation of the self in human consciousness, individual and collective. The experience of the numinous and direction of the dream became the foundations of the discovery of one’s personal myth and revelation. The paper concludes with a description of this process culminating in the perception of what is from the basis of its universal Ground. Such perception would carry with it a vastly extended compassion as the basis of a present and future hope.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / Death and Spirituality in AIDS Testimonies written by Women in France

- In the French corpus of AIDS narratives sixteen women offer their story of how they contemplate their forthcoming death or, more frequently, their forthcoming grief for the loss of a loved-one. Four such stories are examined along semantic clusters representing a working definition of spirituality (Personhood, Relationships, Search of Meaning, Transcendence, and Religion). Their spiritual discourses, more or less elaborate as they are, must also be framed within the AIDS discourses, including gender in AIDS. Be they HIV carriers themselves or accompagnantes (a mother of a daughter lost to AIDS, a nurse in an AIDS ward, an HIV positive wife of a HIV positive husband now dead, or the HIV negative wife of an HIV positive man in good health), the autobiographical narrators entertain some form of beliefs from secular humanism to quasi-mystic quests, with their writings poised as an essential part of their spiritual journeys.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / Making Meaning on the Motherline

- This article illustrates patterns of spiritual growth in the autobiographies of three Canadian women who search for the meaning of their foremother heritage. The article presents exploratory case-studies of works by Simonne Monet-Chartrand, a Roman Catholic; Fredelle Bruser-Maynard, a Jew; and Maria Campbell, a Métis.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / The Omega Sense: A Revisioning of Inner Space and Feminine Spirituality

- Since initial interest has arisen in the concept of internal space, much discussion has occurred around its significance, especially in regards to the realm of feminine psychosocial and sexual maturation. This article explores the concept of internal space within the context of women’s sense of self and spiritual meaning. The archetype of the Omega, a womb-shaped symbol, is adopted as it suggests openness and a receptivity to the world. At the same time, this half-circle indicates a state of emptiness and yet a potential for fullness. Drawing on studies on inner strength among women survivors found in the nursing literature, the possibilities for healing and wholeness through the exploration of women’s inner space is investigated.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / Women and Worship : This Ancient Love

- Women and worship is a topic that has generated controversy since the beginning of Christianity. The discussion today continues to show the complexity of the issues, the urgency some women feel in presenting it, and the problematic nature it continues to hold for the Roman Catholic Church. This paper examines aspects of this topic highlighting the women’s liturgical movement, women’s naming and knowing the Holy and the transformative nature of women’s rituals.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 2 / Self-Help Groups: Implications for Pastoral Professionals.

- The self-help movement, experienced as therapeutic, spiritual and as a home for many, meets the needs of our time. While addressing spiritual needs for some, for many, these groups fulfill a need for kinship and for support at a time when family structures have become increasingly fragmented. Self-help makes use of family as metaphor and contributes to the development of a new kind of relationship based on self-development. Pastoral counselors are encouraged to understand the history of the self-help movement and its potential role in the healing of individual’s in today’s society.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / William James’s “The Varieties of Religious Experiences” One Hundred Years Later: A Paradigm of Pathways for Pastoral Professionals

- On the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of the publication of William James’s seminal work, The Varieties of Religious Experiences, a paradigm is proposed to aid in understanding selected features of the book and their significance for pastoral counsellors. The paradigm contains the following constituents: a psychological path to the supernatural; a path toward religious diversity; a path toward understanding personal change; a path toward spirituality. This essay seeks to help the contemporary reader to see the continued relevance of Jamesian insights for religious experiences and their multifarious expressions.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / William James, Pastoral Counselling, and Adult Religion.

- This presentation makes the case that the phenomenology of religious experience that James offers in the Varieties of Religious Experience is foundational for the practice of pastoral counselling and for understanding the kind of adult religion that pastoral counselling has as its goal. Part One, William James and Religious Experience, considers three themes in James that have important implications for pastoral counselling: 1) religious experience as actual experience, 2) religious experience as a feeling-conceptualisation contrast, and 3) religious experience as a process of change or conversion. Part Two, William James and Adult Religion, considers the two most significant aspects of religious experience for James – saintliness and mysticism – as a description of adult religion, that is, as a description of the kind of religion that pastoral counselling is meant to facilitate.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / When the Sacred Shows through”: Narratives and Reflecting Teams in Counsellor Education

- With the resurgence of interest in spirituality in counselling, new forms of pedagogy have emerged to assist student counsellors to bridge the gap between spirituality and counselling. One learning format used in counsellor education involves students exploring their spiritual narratives in order to share them in a reflecting team setting, where other students witness and listen to them in the light of their own spiritual narratives. Drawing on the work of anthropologist Barbara Myerhoff and her explorations of the spirituality of personal stories and definitional ceremonies, a learning process has been developed as part of a graduate course on spirituality and counselling. Responses of students through follow-up interviews provide descriptions of their experience of the spiritual narrative/reflecting team format as an educational process with a spiritual dimension.


- Année : 2003 / Volume : 22 / Numéro : 1 / A Map with Many Tributaries”: A Phenomenological Study of Ministers’ Experiences of Using Psychology in Ministry

- This phenomenological study interviewed 25 persons in ministry concerning their experiences of using ideas and theories from psychology in their ministry. Following a review of the literature and a section on the methodology employed, the findings are reported. The data show that ministers utilize many different varieties of psychological theory, with family systems being the most dominant. The ministers interviewed believe that psychology is helpful most of the times, with some notable exceptions. For them, psychology and theology are integrated into ministry in three different ways depending on the context and the needs of the person being served. As one interviewee put it, theology is the map and psychology offers many tributaries within the map. Implications for ministry and future research conclude the study.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 2 / Ethical-Political Practices in Pastoral Care and Counselling with South African Families.

- Ways of being family as well as the socio-political contexts shaping family have changed significantly in South Africa. The transition to democracy and the present HIV/AIDS pandemic create a constantly shifting kaleidoscope, becoming evident in child headed households, HIV/AIDS orphanages, migratory families, gangs as families, families living with the fear and effects of violent crime, and refugee and "illegal immigrant" families. We discuss important changing shapes of family and some ethical-political challenges this shifting kaleidoscope poses for pastoral care and counselling in South Africa. The need for pastoral practices that are both ethical and political is argued. We share stories that reflect explorations into ethical-political pastoral practices with families.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 2 / From Monologue to Dialogue in Families: Internalized Other Interviewing and Mikhail Bakhtin.

- Multi-stressed families often find themselves trapped in a conflictual pattern of interaction. Outer and inner conversations of family members become rigid, single-voiced and closed. Mikhail Bakhtin describes these conversations as monologic, and proposes that true dialogue is more open, responsive and multi-voiced, where a person is able to look at themselves through the eyes of another. Karl Tomm has developed the practice of “Internalized Other Interviewing” where a counsellor interviews an “internalized other” within a client, which assists individuals to be able to see through the eyes of other family members, moving from monologue to dialogue. Guidelines for this counselling approach are described, with suggestions regarding a spiritual dimension of the practice.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 2 / Evoking the Universal Human Family in Public Acts of Healing: Jesus of Nazareth and Virginia Satir.

- This article explores the significance of healing staged as public performances by Jesus of Nazareth and Virginia Satir. Two social science models, social construction of reality and anthropology of ritual, highlight the contribution of collectivities in the deconstruction and construction of worldviews and the legitimization of a change in social status and identity. The author argues that through publicly witnessed and experientially enacted healing acts, Jesus and Satir proclaimed and performed a universal human family that transcends the power of institutional definitions of persons. Within an expanded frame of cosmic and spiritual reference, Jesus’ and Satir’s public healing acts liberated individuals defined by their societies as displaced and deviant to a new identity of worth and belonging as reclaimed and esteemed members of a universal family of humankind sharing a spiritual heritage. In reconnecting persons to their personal, spiritual, and social resources, Jesus and Satir functioned not only as charismatic healers of their time, but also as spiritual leaders and agents of social change.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 2 / Crisis of Faith: Divorce, belief and self-help support group participation.

- During fieldwork in self-help groups for separating and divorcing people I heard many accounts of the divorce process. For both men and women going through separation and divorce there was a recurring theme of crisis. That crisis can be purely personal -- involving one’s identity - or it could include larger aspects of one’s identity such as a faith or spiritual issue that becomes part of the separation and divorce process. Through the mechanism of sharing a life-changing event it can happen that a new identity is created, and this identity is formed within the group. Fieldwork with participants in self-help support groups will be used to illustrate the shifts in marriage, identity and belief systems.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 1 / September 11th: A Spiritual Awakening to New Worldviews.

- The terrorist attacks of September 11th had a multifaceted impact on American lives. This article focuses on how these events sparked a spiritual awakening to the need for a new worldview to help make sense of what had happened, and to help provide order and meaning to life in the wake of such terrorism. Reflections on these events highlight: (a) the forgotten significance of worldviews, (b) the importance of connections or Afit@ between worldviews and everyday reality, and (c) the importance of religion and meaningful interpersonal relationships in constructing and revising worldviews.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 1 / From Fear to Freedom: Toward Spiritual Wholeness.

- To move beyond fear to freedom is essential to the journey of a life in the Spirit. This would be a passage conditioned by the human being’s reconciliation with the self, with one’s own constitutional fragility, and with one’s vulnerability. Still, the movement from fear to freedom also reveals another dynamic: the conquest of freedom. Freedom is the result of a process within which can be found, like a marvellous adventure, the possibility of meeting the God of Jesus Christ as presented by the Gospel--a Triune God who is the full revelation of both human greatness and human freedom. Taking as its point of departure research published in 1998 on personal growth and the experience of God, the present article underlines the need to go from fear to freedom if one is to live fully, at the level of both human and spiritual development. In elaborating this thesis, frequent recourse will be made to the writings of Maurice Zundel, and to my own research on this author and on the connection between freedom, spirituality, and psychology.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 1 / Women’s Images of a Christian God: A Concept Map

- This study explores research on female God-images, suggesting that prior investigations have been unnecessarily influenced by the tendency to limit participants' perspectives to a set of predetermined descriptors. Concept mapping, a method combining phenomenological inquiry and open card sorts, is introduced as a way of portraying the scope, latent structure, and relative salience of women’s images of God. While the authors sought an unconstrained investigation of female God-imagery, composition of the participant samples is best understood as representing Christian God-images. Our exploratory concept map suggests that female God-images vary along the underlying dimensions of confusing-paradoxical versus life-sustaining and impersonal energy versus source of good. Participants reported that traditional God-images (e.g., “creator,” “eternal,” “loving”) were somewhat more descriptive of God than more punitive images (e.g., “jealous,” “vengeful”) or non-traditional (e.g., “sometimes comedian”) God-images. Results indicate that female God-imagery is not wholly reducible to a few categories. Some results, such as the theme of unseen mental energy, seem novel with respect to prior studies. Results are discussed in terms of consistency with prior investigations and methodological implications.


- Année : 2002 / Volume : 21 / Numéro : 1 / Psychological Type and Mystical Orientation: Anticipating Individual Differences within Congregational Life.

- A sample of 543 participants who attended workshops concerned with personality and spirituality completed the short index of mystical orientation (SIMO) together with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrate that, according to the MBTI typology, dominant thinkers are less open to a mystical orientation than dominant sensers, dominant intuitives, and dominant feelers. Those least open to a mystical orientation are dominant thinkers with auxiliary sensing. The implications of these findings are discussed for potential areas of conflict in church life, when ESTJ church leaders may be out of tune with a congregational membership more open to mystical experience.


- Année : 1999 / Volume : 18 / Numéro : 1 / Counseling pastoral et valeur fondamentale individuelle: une étude phénoménologique

- Results of a phenomenological research have shown that clients in counselling yearn for goods which are oriented towards ultimate realities. Such yearnings can be expressed and summarized in terms of a AFundamental Value unique to each individual. The present paper presents results of such a research which demonstrated, through the use of A. Giorgi’s phenomenological method, that a Fundamental Value is identifiable in clients’s counselling session discourse. Recordings of five subjects’ counselling sessions were analyzed in that perspective, using three sessions with each subject, each of which differed in content - problem presented - and in time - covering up to three year period. It was found that subjects Fundamental Values were accounted for through expressions such as Security about one’s Dignity, Power over Pain, Freedom of Autonomy etc. Theoretical background and clinical application in pastoral counselling of the concept of Fundamental Values is presented.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 2 / Aging Women’s Emotional Development and Relationships with Women in the Context of Western Beauty Culture

- Western society’s mandate that women retain youthful, thin bodies potentially impedes the development of mental and relational wellbeing for countless women, both young and old. Within this competitive, ageist beauty culture, women’s friendships are undermined as they jealously evaluate one another’s looks to gauge who among them will most closely approximate unobtainable feminine perfection. We expose this divisive phenomenon by reviewing literature on beauty culture standards, media’s influence, the impact of beauty rules on women’s emotional development, and women’s self-objectification, with a particular emphasis on how the aging process can escalate the threat to women’s sense of self worth and their female friendships. We recommend the undertaking of more diverse, gender-sensitive research and implementation of culturally-competent praxis that advances therapists’ and spiritual advisors’ interventions to liberate their female clients from beauty culture’s negative impact across the life span.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 2 / The Role of Religion and Spirituality in Women’s Body Image and Eating Behavior. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Clinical Implications

- In this paper we examine the dynamics between women’s religion and spirituality and their body image and eating behavior. We begin with a brief historical perspective followed by a summary of three fundamental links between religion/spirituality and body image/eating behavior. We then review published case studies of eating-disordered women, and then present qualitative data from recent research on normal non-diagnosed women. A section on clinical implications describes treatment approaches that incorporate religion and spirituality and then reviews some cultural, familial, and personality variables relevant to religiosity and body image/eating behavior. Throughout the paper we identify areas for future research and consider possible applications for the counseling context regarding the interplay of religiosity and body image/eating behavior.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 2 / Le discours « extraverti » du corps

- The reader will find here a brief description of the excluded, the rejected and the blasted who populate history. The fate of these bodies is linked to the existence of a certain kind of discourse called “extraverti” to avoid all nosographic connotations. None is naturally assigned a gender, a place, or a destiny. This discourse – via the process of identification –creates identity and induces a particular pleasure : that of bodily destruction. The author illustrates the linguistic establishment and the logic of this process using examples from Freud’s oeuvre, from history, a fictional character and a virtual relationship.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 2 / Putting the “P’s” Back in Psychology: Philosophy, People, Personal Growth

- With the increasing cost of managing mental health care in many countries, psychologists have tended to look to pharmacology to help people deal with various psychological concerns. This article explores the need for psychology to put the “P’s “back into the therapeutic enterprise—philosophy, people and personal growth. It examines how the ideas of Heidegger and the teachings of the Buddha afford practitioners an important philosophical foundation for understanding their roles as therapists and their approach to therapy. The article also discusses how therapists can facilitate clients in their personal growth by offering anticipatory rather than intervening care, and relating to clients as fellow human beings. While psychology based on the medical model may be efficacious in alleviating more serious symptoms and reducing the individual’s discomfort in the short-term, it is argued that it is less effective in helping individuals deal with their feelings of “dis-ease” in the long-term. By putting philosophy, people and personal growth back into psychology, practitioners could resume their unique role as a co-journeyer in individual lives and facilitate people’s experiences of the physical, psychological and spiritual dimensions of their existence holistically.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 2 / L’onction d’huile pour les malades : signe et sacrement pour un passage ?

- The anointing with oil or the Anointing of the ill is a sign, a sacrament which indicates how much the anointing integrates and underscores the reality of suffering. The biblical testimony displays that we have to redefine the different meanings of anointing with oil, in particular as history reveals that there has always be a tendency to consider the anointing with oil as a sacrament of the dying, not of the living. This has been finally corrected by Vatican II, giving the Anointing of the ill a new identity. A comparison of two traditional rituals (catholic and mennonite) shows that both take into account the one who is suffering himself while unveiling the different links to words, gestures, the role of the minister and the community as well. Close examination of dialogues witnesses how much the anointing causes a different relationship to weakness as well as to suffering and how it eventually restores our relation to resurrection.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 2 / Le spirituel à l’écoute du corps

- The body, the mind and the emotions are a functional unity, which deserves to be studied as such. In this text, we explore these three parts of the body-mind life, and try to understand the nature of spirituality and its relationship to the body-mind unit. The accent points towards an inner attitude of a listening, as perfect as possible, to present perceptions, the only way, from our point of view, for understanding the nature of these phenomena through a direct experience, and not on hearsay.


- Année : 2006 / Volume : 25 / Numéro : 2 / Pastoral Counselling in Care Services: Between Confidential Space and Integrated Care

- This article describes the position of pastoral counselling in care services in terms of a tension between confidential space and integrated care. The author opts for confidential space as the cornerstone of pastoral counselling. The pastoral counsellor builds a relationship of trust based on his or her role as an explicit religious professional or as an ‘eccentric’ professional. Hence, the pastoral counsellor should keep confidential all information on the client. He or she might only reveal information after consultation with the client, except when there is a threat of serious harm. This concept of confidential space can be combined with integration in the organization and in the management of the centre, but not with integration in the team or the care process. Therefore, the author introduces the concept of collaborative integration. This means that the pastoral counsellor develops communication and collaboration with all partners concerned. This dialogue is the foundation of both confidential space and integrated care.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 1 / Quelques conditions de réussite et obstacles des interventions auprès des clientèles masculines

- In this paper I give some answered to question ask by therapist and others counsellor participating to my conferences or formation sessions. Some questions and answer are applicable to individual therapy as other to group therapy. I address some problems and obstacle to a successful counselling with male clients. More experimented counsellor will recall their own interrogations as younger ones will found answer to their actual state and situation. Specifically I discuss of the limits and need of the counsellor working with male clients.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 1 / Men’s Religious Involvement and Help-Seeking Attitudes: An Exploratory Study

- Religious beliefs and help-seeking attitudes were examined in a sample of 79 men from four Christian groups (Catholic, Southern Baptist, Methodist, and Mennonite). Among demographic variables, age and previous therapy experience accounted for 24% of variance in Christian men’s psychological help-seeking attitudes. Among religious variables, perception that their church encouraged help seeking from secular providers, greater participation in organized religion, and lower acceptance of church teachings accounted for 20% of variance in psychological help-seeking attitudes. When both significant demographic and religious variables were included, age, previous experience in therapy, and perception of their church as interpreting the Bible less literally accounted for 28% of the variance in Christian men’s psychological help-seeking attitudes. Denominational differences in the religious variables were also identified. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 1 / Counselling Men: Necessary Knowledge

- The current paper delineates knowledge necessary to counsel men successfully. Processes of gender role socialization are described with an emphasis on some of their primary sources: families, schools, and media. Harmful masculine characteristics that may result from such socialization include risk-taking and restricted emotionality. Socialization implications for counselling include men’s reluctance to seek help and lack of touch with their emotions. Strategies for counselling are suggested.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 1 / Transformation du travail et souffrance des hommes

- This paper draws on research initiated in France on the impact of employees’ participation in work evaluation and other management committees. The competition in which employees get involved, while adapting to new forms of of human resources management, has a different impact on men and women. The analysis of 600 interviews identified 5 different attitudes (delighted, opportunist, constructive, exasperated, desperate) that can surface as possible reactions to the shift in the professional model that the new management techniques entail. The paper elaborates on the later two attitudes and explores the psychical impasse experienced by men as a result of the numerous changes in the work place. It is recognized that such changes can lead from the valuing of a model of “doing” which is based on performance to the adoption of a model of “being”.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 1 / Grieving processes of heterosexual and homosexual men: A critical review of the literature

- A broad review of the literature on men and grief revealed a paucity of theorizing and exploring the similarities and differences between the grieving processes of heterosexual and homosexual men. Although the literature appears to understand grief as a multifaceted process, while supporting the notion that men can adopt diverse means of grieving loss, it appears to dismiss the need to further investigate each population by seemingly generalizing findings from heterosexual male studies to homosexual men, or by excluding homosexual men from these studies. Furthermore, the extent of the literature reviewed regarding homosexual men and grieving appeared to emphasize AIDS related deaths, suggesting that gay men die only from AIDS. Thus, the need to review and understand the types of societal stressors and their impact upon the grieving process of heterosexual and homosexual men, as well as the recognition of the limitations of the literature, are essential to suggesting the need for the development of a unified model of the impact of sexual orientation on the grieving processes of men.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 1 / Encourager la spiritualité chez les enfants: à la recherché du don mutuel entre parents et enfants

- Regular Article In this contribution, the process of interaction between children and adults is presented as a central element in religious education. The author describes how a child can 'give' to adults concerning religion. The spiritual competencies of children have to be taken seriously. But, at the same time, the « spirituality » of children does not develop on its own. The author explains that children have a right to religion, and therefore, to religious education. This education may not be coercive, but may not be in a « laissez faire »style either. The author introduces the concepts of « participation », of « mutual learning of faith », and of « appropriation » as keywords in the theory about religious education. This theory about religious educations needs a theology in which the religious tradition is not presented as a closed and static system, but as an adventure. In this way, children and adults are both invited to search together for a spirituality that enriches life.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 2 / Deux concepts opératoires. Le « Spirituel » et le « religieux » chez William James et Carl Gustav Jung

- Is the spiritual religious? Is the religious spiritual? Are there any criterions to discern between a spiritual and a religious experience? This question is strongly relevant in our contemporary world where the institutional and ecclesial structures just as the theological terminology are increasingly being questioned. At first, we shall present a brief definition of the spiritual and the religious according to different authors with a view to point to the values and the problematic of such terms. We shall then tackle these two operating concepts from the psychological perspectives of William James and of Carl Gustav Jung. To conclude we shall ratify the importance of such a distinction between these two operational concepts for the contemporary interreligious and interdisciplinary dialogue.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 2 / Spirited Praxis: Vitality and Pastoral Counselling

- This article depicts pastoral counseling as spirited praxis. Spirited praxis refers to the dynamic processes of both action and reflection on action that occur between counselor and client(s), whereby subjective and intersubjective experiences of being alive and real are fostered. Experiences of being alive require, in part, the development and maintenance of two capacities, namely, agency--accompanied by inviolableness, significance, authenticity, and freedom--and play--attended by imagination, creativity, awe, and gratitude. Agency and play are the lenses for understanding the process and aims of the pastoral counseling relationship.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 2 / L’intégration psychospirituelle des pasteurs des jeunes. Un modèle interdisciplinaire de théologie pratique

- This article proposes an innovative way to label the relational dynamics of youth ministers by using four ministerial roles commonly found in youth ministry. The model of psycho-spiritual integration derives from the field of practical theology. It is elaborated by role theory in accord with the socio-psychological perspective. The four ministerial roles are identified as emerging from both the (conscious) ministerial practice of youth ministers and from the (unconscious) dynamics of the relational and family histories of people working with youth. This pastoral reflection on ministry is made more profound through the use of two theological models that articulate a Christian conception of psycho-spiritual integration.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 2 / Theistic Counselling and Psychotherapy: Conceptual Framework and Application to Counselling Practice

- This article describes an approach to counselling and psychotherapy that is grounded in the worldview of the theistic world religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. We briefly describe the conceptual framework for theistic counselling and psychotherapy, which includes theological, philosophical, and theoretical assumptions and rationales concerning how to integrate spirituality into treatment in an ethical and effective manner. We describe the process of implementing theistic counselling and psychotherapy in practice and illustrate its application with a case example. We invite pastoral counsellors to join in the effort to apply and evaluate the effectiveness of this approach.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 2 / Logotherapy and Depression: Implications for Intervention with Older Adults

- Loss of friends, loss of family, and loss of self-esteem are often associated with major depression, one of the most prevalent mental health issues in later life. These and other significant losses undermine the older person’s sense of meaning and exacerbate the devastating symptoms associated with this mental health challenge. Religiously oriented older persons frequently react to personal and relational loss by seeking meaning and solace within the context of their faith. When losses are particularly overwhelming and senseless, older adults may wrestle with the purpose of their suffering and they may even wonder why God will not let them die. This article draws on the work of Viktor Frankl and the principles of Logotherapy to equip counsellors to translate the principles of meaning oriented therapy into effective intervention with depressed older persons who turn to theological belief systems to cope with the losses they encounter.


- Année : 2007 / Volume : 26 / Numéro : 2 / Adapting a Secular Forgiveness Intervention to Include Religion and Spirituality

- Although the concept of forgiveness has strong roots in religion and spirituality, most empirical research on forgiveness, both basic and applied, has not incorporated these references. Recent investigations have shown that tailoring group forgiveness interventions to include religion and spirituality can be effective for increasing feelings of forgiveness and decreasing feelings of unforgiveness for religious and spiritual people. In the present article, we summarize a five-step psychoeducational model to promote forgiveness. We describe exercises for each step. We identify central guidelines for adapting an evidence-based secular forgiveness intervention for use in a spiritual or religious community: (1) use the essence of the secular program, (2) make modifications that precisely fit the specific spiritual or religious community, and (3) test the adapted model for effectiveness. We conclude by describing a case study in which the five-step psychoeducational model to promote forgiveness was adapted for use within a Christian community.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / The interplay of anxiety and spirituality

- The relationship between anxiety and spirituality remains understudied, despite a growing empirical literature about spirituality, religion, and mental health. This article begins by reviewing the current English-language research literature. Epidemiological studies have been mixed, reporting positive, negative or no relationship been anxiety and spirituality/religion. A number of secularized spiritual techniques (such as meditation) have been used in secular forms in treatment. Studies of traditional therapies modified to include spiritual/religious dimensions generally find them useful for clients who are already spiritual or religious. Psychophysiological and cognitive aspects of anxiety are incorporated into a theory of how positive spiritual experiences can interrupt and even reverse the cognitive and biological processes which create and maintain a state of anxiety, while negative spiritual experiences may provoke anxiety.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / Moral obsessions: a cognitive-behavioural approach

- This literature review presents the cognitive-behavioural approach to the phenomenon of moral and religious obsessive-compulsions. This paper covers the historical perspective of religious obsessive-compulsion, its prevalence and related developmental factors, and its impact on interpersonal relationships. The thought processes and cognitive errors related to obsession will be analysed with a specific focus on the phenomenon of religious obsessions. Following will be a discussion of the goals of cognitive-behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder as they particularly relate to interventions in the area of religious obsessions. Collaboration between spiritual counsellors and psychologists is highly suggested in this clinical domain.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / Blasphemous obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Collision or cooperation between psychology and spirituality?

- Blasphemous obsessions associated with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involve unwanted, intrusive thoughts, images and/or impulses of a blasphemous nature. Although obsessions are normative experiences, individuals who endorse catastrophic misinterpretations of these intrusions are at a greater risk to develop OCD in general, whereas individuals who hold rigid religious beliefs may be predisposed to the development of blasphemous obsessions in particular. The leading empirically based treatment for OCD, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), involves, among other components, planned disclosure of the obsessions to a trusted friend, relative and/or clergy member. The various responses given to those experiencing obsessions are of great import as they may have beneficial or adverse impact on the lives of individuals suffering from OCD. An interdisciplinary approach involving psychologists and clergy members may prove helpful when addressing interpretations and/or beliefs responsible for the maintenance of blasphemous and other obsessions.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / Specific child and adolescent phobias: A review of the exposure treatments

- The goal of this paper is to review the literature on the exposure treatment of specific phobia in children and adolescents. More specifically, we will document the types of treatments and the protocols used in the studies reviewed. Among the reliable studies, it appears that there is a trend towards short therapy programs and more diversified approaches than what is found in the treatment of adults, such as eye movement and desensitization and reprocessing. It appears that exposure based therapy is always more efficient than other treatments. The results of this review are discussed in term of clinical consequences and avenues for future researches.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / How to befriend death: Anguish and life fulfillment

- To grow in maturity and have a complete spiritual life is not possible without integrating death into human experience. Thus, the most important question is not about what will happen after death, but how to experience death as the ultimate fulfillment of life. The thesis of this article is that to integrate death into life is a way of confronting the fear of death and the anxiety that death produces. In reality, anxiety in face of death is the result of the fear of “dying badly” and of the unknown to which death is the door. Within the Christian tradition “eternal life,” while a divine gift, is a life already started here and now through Jesus Christ’s death and resurrection. Consequently, human life is the sacrament of eternity. Faith in the after-life does not alienate Christians from their engagement in the transformation of the world and, particularly, in overcoming suffering; on the contrary, it is here and now that they are called to make eternal life present.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / Guilt and anguish when life and death impulses are entangled: Hermeneutic psychology of the first Semaine des Exercices Spirituels

- The first week of the Spiritual Exercises is dedicated to sin. Firstly, we shall show how this first week is undoubtedly based on the experiences of its creator. Basing ourselves on szondienne theory, we shall risk evoking one of the questions asked by Ignatius: Of what am I guilty? Secondly, we shall describe the first week of Spiritual Exercises by focusing on the structure of the time of prayer. We shall discuss the psychological relevance of dynamics which concentrate on the sin in our life, notably through the feelings of guilt and of shame. How is a way of life possible when the “retraitant” feels sinful and shameful? Indeed, are not fear and anxiety intrinsically activated in such situations? We shall conclude on the pertinence of the spiritual guide whose the role could be to check any drifting towards morbid conclusions.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / Feminist spiritualities as points of healing

- In this article on feminist spiritualities, we want to show up their contribution to the women’s health, and also, to the people’s health in general. We will analyse how the creation of new symbols and rituals by the women, brings them to found themselves again in relation with the sacred closer to their experience. This creation brings transformations at personal level, for women, as it does to their social level. We will be able to perceive a contribution of feminist spiritualities as we notice an appeasement of some sufferings typically feminine, indeed universal to the human being in general.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 1 / Pilgrimage: An alternate form of therapeutic recourse in modern Quebec

- In the 21th century, in which health is so precious, a multiplicity of new forms of well-being appears in a changing society. In this context, new forms of pilgrimage become a welcoming place for persons or groups who are afflicted by illness or have problems in our modern society. They give spaces where persons or groups express their faith and values in relation to suffering. This talk, according to pilgrim’s testimonies and my participant observation on these three Quebec sanctuaries, presents an analysis of therapeutic work perform in these much frequented sites.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 2 / A Qualitative Investigation of Multicultural Expressions of Spirituality: Preliminary Findings.

- There has been increased attention in the counseling literature on the importance of spirituality as related to psychological well-being, health and multicultural counseling. This qualitative study of multicultural expressions of spirituality focused on diverse ethnic/racial cultural perspectives on the question, “what is spirituality?” Seven focus groups and one individual interview with representatives from diverse ethnic and racial groups in a college town in the Southeastern United States were conducted. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory method and an emergent theory of multicultural spirituality was developed. Salient themes included concepts of God (Higher Power, the Ultimate, Mystery), relationship and connection, subjective personal inner experience, outward actions or behaviors, way of life (morals, culture), and religion. Implications for multicultural counseling are discussed.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 2 / Illusions of a ‘soft’ multiculturalism and Christian theology: Two religious readings of Musa Wenkosi Dube.

- What is the contribution of a feminist and postcolonial Christian theology to the critique of multiculturalism? Women theologians, who use both a feminist and a postcolonial approach, criticized what Hyun Kyung Chung called a soft multiculturalism, the one which conceals relations of domination. A hard multiculturalism takes these relations into account and addresses them directly. In order to clarify this distinction, the author of this article creates links between Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s critic of liberal multiculturalism and two biblical readings by the African theologian Musa Wenkosi Dube : the Book of Ruth and the story of the woman who was suffering from hemorrhages (Mc 5 :24-43). From this combined perspective comes a critique of two illusions of a soft multiculturalism: justice and benevolence.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 2 / The Greatest Pilgrimage: Reflections on a Bahá’í frame of reference for spiritual care.

- ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the Bahá’í religion, suggests that relief of the sorrow-laden heart requires both attending to the spiritual suffering of another as well as a process of holy pilgrimage for the attendant. The present work examines how spiritual care, or chaplaincy, within the hospital context may be regarded through the lens of the Bahá’í Faith. The author also examines his personal history in relation to ministry, as well as some important ethical implications of a post-modern, non-denominational approach to spiritual care.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 2 / Validation of a spirituality measure with a Muslim

- The purpose of this study was to replicate the validation study of the Index of Core Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT: Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister, & Benson, 1991) using a Muslim sample (N = 76). Results generally replicated validation studies with Christian and Jewish samples, showing a positive relationship between the internalized spiritual experiences of the participants and their intrinsic religious experiences, measured by the intrinsic scale of the Religious Orientation Inventory (ROI: Allport & Ross, 1967), while the relationship between the INSPIRIT and extrinsic religiosity was not significant. The study also showed that the internalized spiritual experiences of the Muslim sample as measured by the INSPIRIT correlated positively with quality of life as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Inventory (WHOQOL-BREF: Bonomi & Patrick, 1997). Thus, spiritual experiences are related to the mental health of Muslim clients and so, merit attention during assessment.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 2 / Challenges regarding counseling and mediation in a multicultural context: should counsellors be concerned about multi- or intercultural conflicts in the workplace?

- Multiculturalism challenges counseling. The best practices in counseling and mediation should consider the impact of multiculturalism in the workplace. This article deals more specifically with issues in regards to cultural diversity and mediation. The question being asked is the following: which type of mediation is the most appropriate for dealing with conflicts involving members of two or more different cultural groups? To answer this question, we present and analyze three types of mediation (interest based, insight focused and intercultural) in the context of a short case study involving a conflict in a workplace. We then share some thoughts in order to improve counselors’ capabilities in decision making, and their ability to educate their clients, as to which approach is the most suitable to resolve multi- or intercultural conflicts.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 2 / Educational setting and eating disorder risk factors among young Jewish women: a comparison between single-gender and coed schools.

- Many psychological, social, and biological factors have been explored in an effort to understand the development of eating disorders (EDs) and their risk factors. Limited attention has focused on the role that gender composition (single-gender versus coed) of high schools may play in the development of risk factors for EDs, and studies that have investigated this issue have not included religious institutions. The current study explored the association between gender composition and ED risk factors among 301 young Jewish women, many of whom attended private religious high schools. Findings revealed that students who attended coed schools showed higher levels of gender role conflict (as measured by adherence to the Superwoman Ideal) and social comparison to media images than those that attended all-girls high schools. However, these differences did not translate into disparate levels of body dissatisfaction or disordered eating. Findings are discussed in the context of the characteristics of co-educational settings that may place young Jewish women at greater risk for developing body image problems—particularly gender role conflict related to competing pressures to achieve both academic and social success at an early age. Further investigation is required to clarify the nature of the relationship between schools’ gender composition and eating attitudes and behaviors in this population as well as in other sociocultural groups.


- Année : 2008 / Volume : 27 / Numéro : 2 / Solace for the soul: evaluating a spiritually-integrated counselling intervention for sexual abuse.

- This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a manualized 8-session, spiritually-integrated counselling intervention for female survivors of sexual abuse. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment of psychological and spiritual functioning at baseline, after session 4, post-intervention, and at a 1-2 month follow-up. The four participants demonstrated significant decreases in psychological distress and trauma symptoms across time. In addition, two participants with significant spiritual struggles increased their spiritual well-being by the end of the intervention and at follow-up. Spiritually-integrated counselling interventions, such as Solace for the Soul: A Journey Towards Wholeness show promise in facilitating both psychological and spiritual recovery from sexual abuse.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 1 / Traditional and cultural healers and healing: dual interventions in counselling and psychotherapy.

- Since the beginning of time, people have been using a range of healing practices to resolve health and mental health concerns. Among these are the traditional healing practices which appear to be growing among immigrant communities in the West, for example, Yoga, Ayurveda, Astrology, Voodoo, Santeria; and, the newer forms, viz., Maat, Morita therapy, Naikan therapy and many others. These indigenous healing methods seem to address some of the many shortcomings of conventional health care and are practices in conjunction with, and at times in the place of, modern Western forms. It seems that including two different health care modalities is possible since competing and contradictory cures can be held alongside each other without creating conflict in the clients. This paper discusses traditional and cultural healers and healing in non-Western countries and those practices that are engaged with in the diaspora. The paper also considers the use of traditional healing alongside Western counselling and psychotherapy – dual interventions. Finally, the paper explores several strategies that counsellors could undertake when working with ethnic minority clients, particularly those clients who also enter into dual relationships with traditional healers.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 1 / Helping family caregivers through online stress management training: Is it possible? Results of an evaluative pilot study.

- Given the stress inherent in the experience of numerous family carers and their difficulty gaining access to services, particularly when geographically distant, a psycho-educational support program focusing on stress management training was designed using information and communication technologies. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of this individual program comprising seven online sessions on the process of stress management as related to the carer role. The program was tested with eight family carers of elderly persons, who were tutored throughout the process by a health professional. Results underscore the potential of this innovative intervention approach in the light of the rapid spread of internet use among people of all ages and the isolation of family carers. Accessibility and asynchronism are the main advantages afforded by this online training program geared to providing family carers with the requisite tools for better management of everyday stress. This pilot study provides guidelines for psychotherapy and psychospiritual support of family caregivers.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 1 / Nature as healer: aboriginal ways of healing through nature.

- Euro-western culture is slowly realizing that ‘modern medicine’ and science is not able to fully meet its peoples health and healing requirements. The rapid growth of alternative, holistic medicine demonstrates that people are looking beyond science for healing assistance. In addition, the fear that ‘civilized’ cultures have mistakenly damaged the environment and the natural order of things is growing every day. A common belief for Aboriginal people is that humans are part of a greater whole that includes the natural world, and the spiritual world. Both the natural and spiritual world can be the teachers and healers for all peoples of the earth.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 1 / Learning from tradition : healers in the Açorean (Azorean) Islands.

- Spirituality and religious faith as therapeutic components of counselling and psychotherapy have not yet been fully embraced by the majority of practitioners in the field. The present study identified important religious values in the use of traditional healers. The ethnographic study took place in the Açorean Islands of Portugal, specifically the islands of Terceira and São Miguel. A major finding of this study was the significance of religious values and spirituality in the act of healing by the healers. A brief context is given and relevant religious practices are described. The types of healers identified in this study are illustrated. Finally, the implications for counselling practices are discussed.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 1 / Receiving a gift in the context of Alcoholics Anonymous as illuminated by the parable of the Good Samaritan.

- Until now, very little research explored the way in which assistance is received in self-help groups. The results of the present research in practical theology serve to better understand the process of the reception of assistance in the Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) movement. This study explores the process of mutual help from the point of view of the receivers. Using a qualitative research methodology, twelve interviews of members of this ‘movement’ were conducted. The results of these observations are briefly presented. The parable of the Good Samaritan is used as an interpretative framework to understand the narrative accounts of these A.A. members. Through a better understanding of what occurs on the side of the ‘receivers’, this article challenges the professionals and volunteers in their role as ‘givers’.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 1 / Con el favor de Dios : The role of promotoras/community lay health workers as spiritual helpers in supporting diabetes self-management among Mexican Americans.

- There is evidence that individual spirituality positively impacts health behaviours and health status, as well as the ability to recover from illness. Among Latinos, spirituality and belief in God may serve as a cultural resource and a source of social support, as well as coping mechanism for disease-related stress. This article describes the results of a qualitative study investigating the role of the lay health worker, or promotora, in serving as a spiritual helper to Mexican Americans with diabetes. Results demonstrated the centrality of spirituality in the daily life of clients. Promotoras utilized the spiritual orientation of their clients to stress personal responsibility for self care in partnership with God, in communal sharing about how spiritual concepts can be applied to one’s life, and by serving as spiritual counsellors in times of crisis. Findings have implications for programs serving Mexican American communities.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 1 / Children are the future…and the present. Challenging pastoral practices with children.

- The contribution contains a critical reappraisal of the traditional notion that ‘children are the future’. Children are not so much seen as not-yet-adults that need to be socialized, but as subjects that live in the present time and have to be respected for what they are. The idea that children are not only ‘the future’, but also ‘the present’ is based on a critical appraisal of Christian spirituality and church practices. The theology of Karl Rahner functions as main reference in the argumentation for welcoming and mystagogical communities.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 2 / Prayer and meditation: A review of research.

- Efforts to prevent mental and emotional disturbances by having clients adopt positive behaviors are garnering much needed attention in the literature today. This is not a new topic to counsellors but current research is shining more light on the effectiveness of incorporating positive behavioral interventions in counselling. In this manuscript, research examining the effectiveness of prayer and meditation are reviewed, and implications for counsellors and counsellor educators are discussed.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 2 / Prayer or the consent to become self in the eyes of the o(O)ther: Illustrations from the perspective of Ignatius of Loyola.

- This article will show that prayer can be a means of changing one’s image of “my god” to an image “of god”. Our connection to the divine derives from our emotional, social and cultural narratives. If attachment theory partially explains the relationship between the believer and the divine, our cognitive capacities can allow us to distance ourselves from our emotional experience of the divine. Prayer then becomes an avenue through which to work on one’s attachment to the divine. Methods of prayer will be evaluated within the context of the spiritual exercises of Ignatius. The structure of prayer time will be described from the perspective of Ignatius of Loyola and an attempt will be made to highlight those aspects of prayer time that involve meditation and contemplation. Such an approach to prayer underscores the central role that can be played by the spiritual director in one’s involvement with spiritual exercises.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 2 / Use of prayer by persons with serious mental illnesses: Patterns and perceived benefits.

- This study explored the relationship between the use of different types of prayer by individuals with serious mental illnesses and their demographic, clinical and religious characteristics, and the perceived benefits they attributed to prayer. As part of a larger study on the role of complementary and alternative medicine and spirituality in recovery from serious mental illness, a national non-probability sample of 235 individuals reported in a written survey that prayer was one of the holistic healing practices they engaged in to enhance their mental health. The study findings revealed differences in the associations of colloquial, meditative, petitionary and intercessory types of prayer with participants’ clinical and religious characteristics, as well as with the perceived benefits that users most frequently attributed to prayer. Study findings provide new information that may help mental health clinicians guide clients with serious mental illnesses who are seeking to benefit from the healing power of prayer.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 2 / Prayer, purpose in life, and attitudes toward substances: a study among 13- to 15-year-olds in England and Wales.

- This study set out to examine the association between prayer frequency, purpose in life and attitude toward substances, among a sample of 2,563 13- to 15-year-old secondary school pupils in England and Wales. Multivariate models controlling for sex, school year and personality (as defined by the Eysenkian dimensional model) demonstrated that greater prayer frequency predicted higher levels of purpose in life while both higher levels of purpose in life and greater prayer frequency predicted more proscriptive attitudes toward substances. These findings are consistent with a model suggesting that prayer frequency promotes a more negative view of substances both directly and indirectly through cultivating a greater sense of purpose in life.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 2 / Theological reflection: Praying out of the “stuff” of our lives.

- This article presents the process of theological reflection in each of its stages as a method for prayer and meditation for pastoral counselors and those in training. Taking the specific event from a counseling session as the entrance point and applying the disciplines of attending, image making, faith connection and enactment, the author develops the idea that through such a discipline those working with others will discover depths for meaning making. Such depth can reach beyond the moment into transformation, both personal and communal.


- Année : 2009 / Volume : 28 / Numéro : 2 / Supportive spiritual counselling: “From meeting the other to THE OTHER we meet”.

- The helping relationship is a journey, for the client, as well as for the counsellor. In a truly fruitful helping relationship, the client experiences the uniqueness of being heard. This experience of being heard lays the foundation for the "healing" of the self. However, is healing an experience or just an ideal or even an possibility? Various definitions of healing lead to different ways of being and behaving. As well, healing can have an impact on faith issues. It is suggested that reading the Word of God may act as an aid in developing a more profound understanding of the word "healing".


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 1 / Spiritual Yearnings: An autoethnographic inquiry

- This autoethnographic research explores the lived experience of renegotiating spiritual identity outside of the Catholic church. Interviews with co-researchers struggling with similar issues were conducted and used in conjunction with relevant literature, and the author’s reflexive look at her own lived experiences, to enhance the meaning of her experience. Interview reflections are shared and implications for counselling are suggested. Findings spoke to the role of the Catholic discourse as new hybrid discourses are negotiated, making room for a more general spiritual discourse. Insight is offered into some of the various cognitive and emotional processes that such a negotiation may entail.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 1 / When I say ‘I believe in God’, who is this ‘I’ expressing faith? From the ‘real being’ to the ‘possible being’ with Maurice Zundel.

- For many believers today, human experience is the ultimate criterion by which to decide for or against the integrity of faith. According to this presupposition, a revelation without contact with our experience could hardly convince us to give an affirmative answer to the proposal of the faith. In this search, Maurice Zundel was a pioneer recognized today as a Prophet for our times. In a first part, the author of this article will show how this process from the “real” to the “possible” was important for his life. Then, in the second part, it will seek to explain the meaning of this movement in the work of Zundel. Finally, in the third part, this article will attempt to assess the consequences for the education of the faith.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 1 / Nondual counselling and psychotherapy: The transformation of anxiety into nondual being.

- This article illustrates the nondual transformation of separate self anxiety as being the resolution of the gap between the illusionary separate self ego and the abyss. Through the lens of transpersonal psychology and its focus on ego death, counsellors are offered a way of helping clients move toward a state of nondual awareness and the ability of seeing through the veil of the separate self. Formerly, this nondual state was seen as the final stage in an arduous journey of ego-transcendence, however nondual psychotherapists are now recognizing that this state can be readily available to clients as part of the therapeutic process. As illustration of this process of self-transformation, the author first recounts his own journey into seeing through the illusion of the separate self and embracing non-dual awareness. Following, a nondual psychotherapy case study is presented. This case study describes the process of a client working through her separate self anxiety by letting go of the effort to save her self and becoming one with the abyss.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 1 / Psychological perspectives on the challenges in the practice of mindfulness.

- A growing number of westerners are becoming interested in the practice of mindfulness. Having been practiced for thousands of years, mindfulness, seemingly accessible to everyone, remains difficult to integrate in one’s everyday life. In the current study, we try to deepen our understanding of the challenges of this practice, originating from the East. First, social psychology is used to understand the latter. Second, Father Hallier’s three obstacles to an inward movement (congestion, scattering, and nervousness) are explored using three well known and documented concepts in social psychology (motivation, identity, and social representation of time). Finally, based on a theoretical analysis of the concepts presented in the first two sections of this study, we suggest how to meet the challenges associated with having a regular and fulfilling mindfulness practice.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 1 / Five skilful habits: An ethics-based mindfulness intervention.

- This paper introduces the ethical component of mindfulness as a behavioural-based aspect of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy program. In Buddhist practice, cultivation of an ethical approach to living is inseparable from cultivation of mindfulness. Teaching mindfulness skills with an exclusion of an ethical framework can result in behaviours that although intended as mindful may be misguided. The Zen monk Thich Nhat Hanh reformulated the Five Mindfulness Trainings which are taught as habits in a mindfulness practice. At the Ottawa Mindfulness Clinic, the Five Mindfulness Trainings or Five Skilful Habits are taught as an integral part of the 8-week program in mindfulness-based symptom management and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Each week participants practice a behaviour as it relates to one of the mindfulness trainings and in the context of physical, emotional, and mental experiences.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 2 / “It is in giving that we receive”: The unity principle in everyday life.

- According to the mystical tradition, all life is connected by a divine spark at the core of every being. The goal of life is to realize experientially this divine source of love and express it in our lives. Because we are all connected, every action affects the whole; what we do to others, we do to ourselves. Violation of the unity principle through pursuit of selfish interests is at the root of all human problems. The practice of eight spiritual disciplines, distilled from the mystical tradition by scholar and teacher Eknath Easwaran (1910-1999), can help to calm the mind, change negative thought patterns, and foster kindness toward all creatures. These spiritual disciplines can be practiced by people of any or no religious tradition; counselors can use them to help clients overcome anger and other negative emotions and live with intentionality.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 2 / The multiple faces of recognition in interpersonal relationships: Analytical essay of two Biblical stories.

- This article proposes different ways to understand the term « recognition » in the context of relationships and spirituality. Three meanings of this concept, emerging from moral philosophy and lexicographic studies, can be found in interpersonal relationships. These three meaning (recognition associated with identification, confession and gratitude) are shown and discussed using two Biblical stories (Cain and Abel ; Isaac, Jacob and Esau). This analytical essay shows the importance to better understand the multiple faces of recognition in personal growth and self-actualisation in order to fully be capable of acknowledging oneself and others.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 2 / The spiritual caregiver as a liaison officer: Relational experiences, spirituality, and the search for meaning.

- This article addresses the role of spiritual care in a secularized context, taking the Netherlands as an example. Using a relational-psychoanalytic theoretical frame it is argued that the core issue in our individualized era is the search for relational meaning, and that this search is closely related to contemporary spiritual longings and practices. Meaning can only be found by being in relation, and spirituality is about being-in-relation. This has huge consequences for the professional identity of chaplains and their cooperation with other caregivers. A model of spiritual care is presented that focuses on helping people to become (more) connected – with themselves, their life history, their loved ones, their environment, and the transcendent.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 2 / The spiritual counsellor and the sharing of information in health care: A plea for a shared professional secret.

- In this article, we address the question how spiritual counsellors can share information with other care professionals without breaching confidentiality necessary for spiritual counselling. We refer to an ethical advice on shared information, formulated by the Ethics Committee in Mental Health Care of the Brothers of Charity. Based on this advice, we argue strongly in favour of a conditional shared professional secrecy. This requires five conditions: (1) the care professionals participate in a clearly defined and identifiable team or network, (2) they perform a common task in care, (3) they are bound by the duty of professional secrecy, (4) they engage in a consultation to ask the patient’s informed consent, and (5) they apply the filter of relevance. We show how these conditions can help spiritual counsellors to balance confidentiality and shared information.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 2 / Broken vows and the next generation: Recognizing and helping when parental divorce is a spiritual trauma.

- Recent national surveys show that older youth who have experienced parental divorce tend to disengage from organized religion but feel as close to God as peers from intact families. In this paper, we offer a conceptual model and concrete guidelines to help adults engage in sensitive, yet direct, dialogues with older youth about the spiritual dimensions of parental divorce. Based on a recent line of empirical research on the role of religion and spirituality for post-divorce adjustment, we argue that parental divorce can be experienced as a spiritual trauma where the event is interpreted as a sacred loss and desecration, and can also trigger painful spiritual struggles. Yet youth can also draw upon adaptive religious/spiritual methods to cope with the transition. We illustrate these psychospiritual processes using quotes from a study of college students who had experienced a parental divorce within the prior five years. We end with a list of questions that parents, pastoral counselors, clergy, and mental health professionals can draw upon to explore the intersection of faith and divorce with adolescents.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 2 / Caring for victims of sexual abuse: Reflections on shame and guilt with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

- The taboo of speaking of childhood sexual abuse is at the origin of a web of complex behaviors, feelings, and attitudes among adult survivors. From the 1980s to date, previously silenced survivors began to give voice to their abuse, leading to a growing number appearing in the offices of counsellors and other mental health professionals. This article addresses the issues of shame and guilt as they are experienced by survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Although shame and guilt are often interrelated, they are unique concepts and as such must be approached differently in counselling. The author distinguishes several levels and forms of guilt and discusses how this chain of guilt can be broken by forgiveness. Notably, the survivor has to forgive him or her self before s/he can broach the idea of forgiving the abuser. Further, the potential impact of the abuse and its related consequences on God image is addressed. The author reflects on how the story of Jesus and the healing of the lepers may have meaning in the care of survivors of sexual abuse. This practical theological approach relates the stories of the survivors within the context of theoretical research on sexual abuse and theology.


- Année : 2010 / Volume : 29 / Numéro : 2 / Attachment styles, therapy, and termination.

- Attachment theory provides one of the basic frameworks for understanding the complexities of interpersonal relationships. As the progress of the therapeutic process is often based on the alliance or relationship between client and therapist, attachment theory, and in particular, Attachment in Family Therapy (AFT) has been called upon to better comprehend the nature of this process. This paper will offer a review of the literature on how client and therapist attachment styles affect the therapeutic process, especially termination of the therapeutic relationship. It is hypothesized that a therapist should approach termination differently depending on a client’s attachment style. Suggestions of such strategies are included.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 1 / Empowered by healing

- Violence in its many forms continues to be rampant both in the West and throughout the world. Unfortunately it is increasing at an alarming rate at the individual, cultural, psychological, physical and sexual levels. Beyond contributing to physical and psychological suffering, beyond even its sometimes fatal consequences, violence destroys relationships. Indeed, it destroys the humanity of the victim and of the one who perpetrates the violence. Thus, healing the wounds and sufferings, as well as removing the scars inflicted by violence and by other unfortunate events is essential to becoming reconciled with oneself and, if possible, with others. This process is needed for resiliency. However, such healing is not always easy. It requires, first of all, that people enter into a process of “remembering” the unfortunate events that have affected the injured persons so that those involved may come to realize the truth of what really happened. Secondly, the victim must be able to forgive him or her self before engaging in forgiveness of those persons responsible for the injury. Thirdly, the victim has to enter into the process of transformation from being one who sees him or her self as a victim to one who sees him or her self as a person who accepts healing. Finally, it is important to consider the pastoral implications arising from these considerations. In this article, the author presents a “heuristic model” which could be applied to the healing process in general.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 1 / From trauma to freedom: A clinical application of the process of resilience.

- Crisis situations and traumatic life events can trigger a disruption in psychological and social well-being. Some individuals demonstrate resilience in the face of the traumatic experience while others do not. How is one to understand the process of resilience from the point of view of theory and clinical application? This paper shares reflections on the function and process of resilience and its theoretical basis. From this analysis, a framework of clinical intervention to accompany vulnerable individuals and their families through the process of resilience is proposed.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 1 / The interconnection between resiliency, spirituality and Durand’s perspective on imagination.

- : This paper focuses on the contribution of the imagination with regards to our understanding of the relationship between resiliency and spirituality. Going beyond a psychologically-biased perspective of the common processes seen in spirituality and resiliency, we broaden our scope by taking sociocultural influences into greater account. To do so, we call upon the Theory of Anthropological Structures of the Imagination, developed by Gilbert Durand (1960). This theory allows us to deepen our understanding of the possible connections between resiliency and spirituality. To illustrate this matter, two brief case examples of resiliency – that of a teenage girl in mourning and that of an elderly man facing his own death – are examined according to the interconnected perspectives of resiliency and spirituality in light of Durand’s theory of imagination.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 1 / Religious functioning and trauma outcomes among combat veterans.

- Recent research on primarily civilian trauma survivors has identified patterns of religious functioning that are related to positive and negative outcomes from trauma. Specifically, those who use their faith as a source of comfort, are active in using prayer as a coping resource, and are involved in supportive relationships with their religious peers and leaders, evidence higher levels of posttraumatic growth. In contrast, those who experience high levels of religious fear and guilt, a disrupted relationship with G-d, and conflict in relationships with religious peers and leaders, evidence more symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study is an attempt to replicate these findings among veterans of combat trauma. In a sample of veterans recently returned from combat (N=110) high levels of religious distress were related to more symptoms, and higher levels of religious comfort and useful religious coping strategies were related to posttraumatic growth.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 1 / The impact of spirituality on posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among military personnel.

- Several studies have shown a direct relationship between trauma and depression however not all people respond the same way to traumatic stress. It is unclear what variables predict positive or negative outcomes of traumatic stress. This study examines the impact of spirituality on reported levels of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel. Results showed that spirituality did not moderate the relationship between combat exposure and depression or PTSD. However, spirituality and combat exposure were each independently related to PTSD and depression, respectively. These finding suggests that spirituality may be a resource among those coping with traumatic stress.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 1 / The influence of religious/spiritual resources on finding positive benefits from a breast cancer diagnosis.

- Very few studies have examined the role of religious/spiritual coping resources in meaning making during the cancer experience. This paper reports prospective findings of a longitudinal study examining the effects of religious/spiritual coping resources on benefit finding in breast cancer. Two-hundred and two patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were assessed after surgery. Several aspects of religiousness/spirituality (e.g., strength of faith, spiritual support) in relation to benefit finding three months later were explored. Strength of faith at surgery was an independent predictor of benefit finding at three months post-surgery. Religious coping to achieve a life transformation also predicted benefit finding, however this relationship was partially mediated by strength of faith. Seeking emotional support coping at surgery also predicted higher levels of finding benefit three months later. This study highlights the importance of examining religious/spiritual resources in combination with other variables to fully understand their relationship to meaning making in cancer.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 1 / Faith-based substance abuse treatment: Is it just about God? Exploring treatment providers' attitudes toward spirituality, forgiveness and secular components of treatment.

- Although spirituality and forgiveness components of substance abuse treatment programs are viewed as important by faith-based substance abuse treatment providers researchers have not compared their relative importance to other treatment components. This study evaluated the perceived importance of spiritually and forgiveness-based treatment components in comparison to other secular psycho-educational components in faith-based treatment programs. A brief survey was completed by 99 Salvation Army drug and alcohol treatment providers employed within Australian residential rehabilitation programs. The survey examined the relative importance treatment providers’ placed on spiritual and secular components of treatment. Attitudes towards spiritual components of treatment, such as Christian education and spiritual development, were positive; however, treatment providers rated secular interventions such as relapse prevention and anger management as more important than spiritual components. Treatment providers also conceptualized forgiveness to primarily be a spiritual construct that was as important to treatment as other secular based components. Implications for treatment providers are discussed.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 2 / Meaning making across three dimensions of religious experience: A qualitative exploration

- The current study focused on the complex connections between meaning making, spirituality, and religious experiences. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in a sample of 184 racially diverse and highly religious families (N=445 individual participants). A three-dimensional, conceptual model of religion by Dollahite and Marks (2009) provided the framework for the findings. The following three themes are presented: (1) Meaning Making and Spiritual Beliefs: “Faith is the only thing that satisfies that hunger”; (2) Meaning Making and Religious Practices: “We fit our life into our religion, not our religion into our life”; and (3) Meaning Making and Faith Community: “Our church family is just like family.” In connection with each theme, several supporting examples from the data are offered to convey the voices and meaning making processes of the participants with authenticity. The data presented and themes identified are used to offer a framework for more culturally competent and, where appropriate or requested, more religious-accommodative therapy designed to aid clients in finding meaning in their daily lives.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 2 / Supportive Relationships: Creating meaning and purpose in life for persons living with HIV/AIDS

- The pivotal role of relationships that enable persons living with HIV/AIDS to overcome distress was explored in a Straussian grounded theory study. Participants were 33 adults in Southern Thailand who had lived with HIV/AIDS for five years or more. HIV/AIDS had “turned their lives upside down”; however relationships, described by participants as a state of connectedness and receiving love and support (kamlangjai) from family members, health professionals, others living with HIV/AIDS, and supernatural beings, resulted in participants finding reasons for living. Relationships enhanced their strength to take control of HIV/AIDS in their lives, thus enabling them to find meaning in life and the will to live.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 2 / ). L’anthropologie spirituelle du loisir : l’homo faber–religiosus-ludens, Counseling et spirtualité

- : In our civilization, everyday life is largely dedicated to the activities of production. Leisure, when approached from this perspective, may become a type of escape wherein its main purpose, as a healing activity for human existence, is lost. In the present paper, productivity (or homo faber) and leisure (or homo ludens), as typical human activities, will be examined as opposite but necessary conditions of human existence. Explanations about leisure taken from various human sciences (including theology) will be presented as pathways for the integration of these activities. Leisure as a means of meaning-making, can drive the process of personal development and in so doing exist as a freeing source for the experiencing of the infinite dimension. The liberating effects of leisure can engender significant benefits for individuals. Consequently, health professionals are invited to engage more with the healing effects of leisure, especially with those individuals who may be struggling with life’s difficulties and personal limitations.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 2 / La relation entre la spiritualité et la crainte de la mort chez les gens âgés

- This study describes the relationship between spirituality and death fear in 54 older adults between the ages of 58 and 98 years (M = 76), residing in a nursing home, hospice, or community setting in North Central Florida. Participants were sorted into four groups based on their scores (high versus low) on spirituality and death fear scales. In-depth analyses of the semi-structured qualitative interviews with the individuals in each group revealed that expressions of death fear were more common in individuals with spiritual discontent as opposed to those with either spiritual contentment or disinterest irrespective of their level of spirituality. The results suggest that spiritual discontent is a greater detriment to dying in peace than spiritual disinterest.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 2 / Religious coping and meaning-making following the loss of a loved one

- This study examined the relation between meaning-making and the use of a variety of religious coping strategies in a sample of Christian adults (N = 60) who lost a loved one in the past five years. Controlling for associated risk factors, challenges with meaning-making were predicted by negative religious coping, but not positive religious coping. Both negative religious coping and challenges with meaning-making predicted prolonged grief disorder symptoms. However a post hoc exploratory mediational analysis suggests that challenges with meaning-making partially explain the association between negative religious coping and prolonged grief. Findings suggest that when individuals’ assumptions were compromised through a crisis of faith, meaning-making appeared to be much more of a struggle. In addition, challenges related to spiritual crises and meaning-making both uniquely contribute to protracted grief reactions. Individuals who have experienced a significant loss and who are disconnected from their religion may benefit from increased religious community support and from meaning-centered interventions that address their spiritual concerns to help facilitate the grief process.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 2 / Meaning making, spirituality, and creative expressive therapies: Pathways to processing grief with children

- Children who experience unresolved traumatic grief and loss are susceptible to future challenges related to development, relationships and overall mental health. While the literature discusses the impact of trauma on a child’s overall wellbeing, little has been written about the role and importance of spirituality and its potential to stimulate post-traumatic growth for children. This paper explores the literature regarding the impact of traumatic grief on children, with the purpose of highlighting the significance of spirituality and meaning making as part of a holistic counselling framework. Specifically, creative interventions are presented to elicit spiritual dialogue as pathways to meaning formation that leads to post-trauma healing and growth.


- Année : 2011 / Volume : 30 / Numéro : 2 / An application of the Clarification of Values model in counselling

- Values play a major role in the counselling process. The goal of this paper is to explore how the model of Values Clarification can be applied to the context of counselling in order to highlight the issue of values. Two personality disorders, histrionic and obsessive personality, are analysed using criteria set forth in the model of Values Clarification. Results show that the histrionic personality values the positive image others perceive of him or her, whereas the obsessive personality values his or her own security to the detriment of creativity and spontaneity. Such results suggest that the model of Values Clarification can indeed be used to identify the roles values play in the clients’ presenting problems.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 1 / Culture ontogeny: Lifespan development of religion and the ethics of spiritual counselling.

- The counsellor has an ethical obligation to treat the whole person. Humans are cultural beings and the foundation of most cultures is religion. Religion and culture are received from our early relationships and modified through later relationships across the lifespan. The paper introduces the term “culture ontogeny” to emphasize that this is a biological process wherein abstract ideas of culture and religion become material in the developing neurophysiology of each brain. A framework and methods are offered to examine the changing roles of religion in clients’ emotional self-structure, inclusive of those who describe themselves as spiritual, not religious. A case study is reviewed examining the effects of dissonance between early developmental God Image and later God Concept on adult functioning, with an example of assessment and treatment to improve mental health. Assessment of this dissonance is recommended to understand and treat the traumatic spiritual disruptions experienced by veterans.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 1 / Maturity: An integration of personal values.

- This article defines a mature person as someone who has integrated his or her personal values. The following points will be discussed: a hierarchy of values; the choice of a fundamental value (constructive or destructive); dis-identification as a factor of integration; a vision of the human being as possessing three interactive parts that contribute to the search for the supreme value; and the question of the ultimate, which triggers the transition from a merely secular quest for personal balance to an openness to a supreme value.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 1 / The passion of the possible: Life story as a pastoral means of accompanying others.

- Since 1980, a major shift has taken place in pastoral care. The interpretation of life issues and the process of meaning making have become a central preoccupation of the pastor or minister in working with the life stories of others. Research in this field has been greatly inspired by the work of Paul Ricoeur. From the perspective of hermeneutics, it is possible to demonstrate the importance of life stories to the transformation of the self. The social constructivist, Kenneth Gergen, focuses on the significance of the stories existing in one’s community as well as in the larger society. According to Gergen, dialogue becomes the instrument ‘par excellence’ for attaining a transformation of the self. To reach that goal, stories have to capture elements of psychological well-being, a meaningful life and the “good life” as interpreted from a Christian perspective.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 1 / ). Ethics of respecting a client’s agency and values in treatment: Perspectives from a theistic spiritual view of counselling.

- The ethical principle of respecting clients’ values and right to self-determination is widely endorsed in the mental health professions, but confusion exists about how to apply this principle in counselling situations. Counsellors who incorporate spirituality into their approaches have at times been criticized for being especially susceptible to imposing their religious values on clients. In this article we describe how a theistic spiritual view of the counselling process can assist counsellors in respecting and enhancing their clients’ agency and right to self-determination. We describe several problematic counsellor styles of handling agency and values issues. We argue that a counselling style that focuses on enhancing clients’ healthy use of agency within the context of an enabling spiritual space and relationship is an ethical and effective valuing approach.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 2 / Spirituality an Untapped Developmental Asset:for School Counselling.

- This article serves as an introduction to the special issue addressing the intersection of K-12 school counselling and spirituality. A definition of spirituality palpable to public school educators is offered. Drawing from social and psychological constructivism, this perspective of spirituality focuses on the ways children and youth construct meaning and purpose in life, which may or may not have religious connotations. Positive psychology’s conceptual underpinnings and research base are used to briefly explain how student spirituality can be viewed as a developmental asset associated with resiliency. The key stages and features related to spiritual development of schoolage children are summarized. To conclude, four broad-based applications to school counselling practice are explored.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 2 / Social, Ecological, and Multicultural Issues Related to Students’ Spirituality.

- Spiritual issues are integrally bound to students’ social, ecological, and multicultural worlds and represent important cultural assets. In this article, we explore the association between spirituality and students’ experiences in various social contexts. Case examples are provided to highlight the complexity and multi-dimensionality of students’ spiritual lives. Implications for counselling in diverse urban schools are discussed.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 2 / Spiritual Assessment in School Counselling: A Two-stage, Multi-model Approach.

- The American School Counsellor Association’s (2010) ethical standards suggest that counsellors should administer spiritual assessments as a routine component of service provision in school settings. To assist counsellors provide ethical and effective services, this paper conceptualizes assessment as a two-stage process: a universally administered brief preliminary assessment followed, if warranted, by an extensive comprehensive assessment. Five comprehensive assessment models are discussed along with their respective strengths and limitations: spiritual histories—a completely verbally-based model—and four diagrammatic models, spiritual lifemaps, genograms, eco-maps, and ecograms. Developing familiarity with a variety of models enables counsellors to move beyond a one-size-fits-all methodology and select a more individualized approach that best fits the interests and needs of both students and counsellors.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 2 / Promoting Spiritual Growth Through Holistic Wellness: Practical Strategies for School Counsellors.

- Albeit essential to human flourishing, wellness, and specifically spiritual wellness, remains an under-investigated area with school-age children and youth. . For professional school counsellors, there is a challenge in understanding spiritual wellness, how it develops in students, and how to utilize the concept within the context of comprehensive school counselling programs. This article focuses on the complexity of wellness, examines spirituality and spiritual wellness in children and youth, and offers insight on how to integrate spiritual wellness into systemic school-based counselling programs.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 2 / Strategic Interventions to Address Student Spirituality.

- This article examines strategic interventions for student spirituality in K-12 educational settings. The first part of the article lays the foundation for successful school-based interventions by addressing: the context of current school programs (e.g., character education); the use of a tiered approach to school-based interventions; the selection of developmentally appropriate curriculum; and the implementation of foundational principles of learning theory. Specific school counselling interventions related to spirituality are presented using a four-component model of spirituality alongside the comprehensive and developmental model of school counselling. Finally, suggestions for optimal collaboration with school personnel and other stakeholders are provided.


- Année : 2012 / Volume : 31 / Numéro : 2 / Spirituality in Québec Schools: a look at the course of Ethics and Religious Culture and its application in a Steiner school and a Muslim school.

- The relations between school and religions in Quebec have undergone important changes since the end of 1990’s. This paper looks, first of all, at the impact of this new secular orientation on students’ spirituality, especially within the new Ethics and Religious Culture (ERC) program and the Spiritual Care, Guidance and Community Involvement. The author then presents two current criticisms of this ERC School program, which reveal alternate visions of autonomy, citizenship and jurisdiction over schools in a democracy. The author presents the results of a qualitative study that show how a Muslim School and a Steiner (’s) School interpret the ECR curricula in their respective school. These examples reveal two attempts to reconcile the « particular » and the « universal », in terms of autonomy, citizenship and jurisdiction over schools.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 1 / The Paradox of Pedagogization and the Implications for Pastoral Care in Pediatrics.

- In this contribution we examine if and how the paradox of pedagogisation explains the difficulties that the spiritual care for children encounters in Belgian hospitals. The paradox refers to putting children in the centre of society with specialized education and care, pretending to respect the children’s dignity and their specific needs, and at the same time isolating them from the world of adults from which they need to be protected. The focus on specific educational needs of children often lacks the aspect of ‘spirituality’. One of the causes that limit spiritual care for children in Belgian hospitals is the presence of many other caretakers who work with a biopsychosocial model that does not include spiritual care as an element.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 1 / EMDR, Spirituality, and Healing in Children.

- The treatment modality Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing [EMDR] is an integrative approach that researchers have shown to be effective in dealing with post-trauma symptoms in both children and adults. In recent studies EMDR has been shown to be helpful in treating children and adolescents with various therapeutic issues, ranging from low self-esteem to major conduct disorders. In this article, the author elaborates on her work with children using the EMDR process to move the clients to a spiritual meaning-making that seems to foster more positive emotional states and adaptive behaviors. Theoretical support from theologians, religious educators and EMDR specialists is presented especially in regard to clients’ self-transcendent experiences.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 1 / Grieving the Loss Linked to Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivor: A Narrative Therapy in Search of Forgiveness.

- A childhood sexual abuse survivor struggles unceasingly to learn how to trust and to love again. This article examines the literature related to survivors’ experience of being sexually abused, its consequences, and proposes a therapeutic model to work with them. A narrative therapy will be presented as a means of journeying with a sexual abuse survivor towards forgiveness, and a case study will be shared. Furthermore, a Christian Narrative approach will be further explored in the light of the survivor’s questions: “God, why me?” Finally, the implications of the narrative approach and suggestions for further therapeutic work will be discussed.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 1 / An Empirical Study Exploring the Four Roles Identified among Catholic Pastoral Youth Ministers.

- Using a socio-psychological model, this paper presents an innovative way to name four commonly encountered roles in youth ministry: teacher, foster parent, therapist and star. Based on a Canadian sample (N = 136), the results show that youth ministers have attitudes and skills that can be classified according to one or more of these four roles. The discussion, using on theological reflection, suggests that a better understanding of youth ministry roles appears to be useful in order to improve self-awareness and practices of youth ministers.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 1 / and their Search of Meaning : Yesterday and Today.

- This text is based on two perspectives. First, anthropologically, adolescence and youth are periods of effervescent faith and search for meaning; the theories saying that young people need a model should be re-examined in light of their diversified learning styles. These two perspectives are analysed via two great classical texts (Augustine’s Confessions and The Emile or Education, by Rousseau), which reveal that youth has always been the same, in some respects at least in our Western civilization. Second, two other sections develop some sociological trends on youth and religion in the West, as well as a counseling approach, using reflection on models and mentoring.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 1 / [REGULAR ARTICLE] Travailler avec des clients suivant une direction spirituelle.

- This text is based on two perspectives. First, anthropologically, adolescence and youth are periods of effervescent faith and search for meaning; the theories saying that young people need a model should be re-examined in light of their diversified learning styles. These two perspectives are analyzed via two great classical texts (Augustine’s Confessions and The Emile or Education, by Rousseau), which reveal that youth has always been the same, in some respects at least in our Western civilization. Second, two other sections develop some sociological trends on youth and religion in the West, as well as a counseling approach, using reflection on models and mentoring.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 1 / [REGULAR ARTICLE] Exploring how Contemplative Pratices Can Inform Counselling Psychology and Counsellor Training.

- In this article, we describe a process of exploration and discovery that took place in a lab at the University of British Columbia’s graduate program in Counselling Psychology, which involved an experiential study of contemplative traditions. A general introduction outlines the relevance of these traditions to counselling psychology. We consider their import to counsellor training, ethical behaviour, cross-cultural competence, therapeutic interventions, self-awareness, and self-care. We decided to share our personal journey in this article in the hope that it will inspire others in the counselling profession to look deeper into the well of self-reflection and wisdom embodied in contemplative practices.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 2 / Measuring mindfulness?

- This article addresses the question of measuring a Buddhist inspired practice applied currently in the field of clinical psychology, namely in North America, mindfulness. Firstly, variable definitions of mindfulness will be explored; secondly, two assessment tools of mindfulness will be presented, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory and the Five Facet Mindful¬ness Questionnaire; thirdly and lastly, three criticisms made to these psycho¬metrical attempts to measure what seems to be unmeasurable will be out¬lined.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 2 / Perspectives on Mindfulness from the Buddha's Homeland: A Focus Group Inquiry.

- Mindfulness-based interventions have exploded in popular¬ity in North America and Western Europe over the past 10 years. While research indicates that these interventions have wide-ranging physical and psychological benefits, little consideration has been given to exactly how the West is appropriating a spiritual practice that has its roots in India. To begin exploring this issue we conducted a focus group with experts in Buddhist studies in India. We first conducted a three hour experiential workshop on mindfulness to give the participants a common understanding of how mind¬fulness is being employed in the United States. We then held a two and half hour focus group to consider the concerns and reservations that Indian experts in the theory and practice of Buddhist meditation had about the use of mindfulness in American healthcare. Five main themes were identified: a) Lay perception about meditation; b) importance of purity; c) similarities and differences between tradition and MBSR; d) purity may be a myth, and e) lessons for purists and pragmatists.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 2 / A Mindfulness Approach to Educating Preservice School Counsellors about Spirituality.

- Despite the growing demand to address the spiritual issues of K-12 students, many school counsellor preparation programs fail to pro¬vide adequate education in this domain. A mindfulness approach is proposed as a largely non-threatening and non-controversial way to introduce spiritu¬ality-related topics to preservice public school counsellors and to elementary and secondary students. After defining spirituality within a constructivist framework, the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of mindfulness as well as various programmatic (e.g., curricular and supervisorial changes) and practice-based (e.g., counselling interventions and techniques) recommenda¬tions for incorporating spirituality into the preservice counsellor education are presented.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 2 / Mindfulness Meditation & Gratitude Journalling: The Experiences of Graduate Counselling Psychology Students.

- Stress-impacts, both short and long term, are well-docu¬mented occupational “land-mines” that counsellors navigate throughout their careers- in particular novice therapists and trainees (Shapiro, Brown, & Biegel, 2007). A known antidote is self-care, a process of creating and maintaining self-awareness and self-regulation (Baker, 2003). Its impact cannot be underestimated: self-care is integral in creating psychological wellness both personally and professionally and for counsellors, ethical obli¬gations are stipulated (APA, 2002; Elman, 2007; Harris, 2010). In literature, two emerging and theoretically linked self-care practices, mindfulness and gratitude (Nelson, 2009; Shapiro et al. 2007), were examined with nine graduate counselling psychology students. A 15-minute mindfulness medi¬tation and gratitude journalling intervention was conducted; qualitative data of weekly gratitude diaries and an interview at study-end was collected and analyzed. Four themes emerged from the interviews: a) Routine and Struc¬ture, b) Relationships, c) Attitudes of Mindfulness, and d) Overall Impacts. The diaries revealed three themes: Relationships, Situational/Life Circum¬stances, and Ineffable Life Enhancers. An argument is made for the inclusion of a mindfulness curriculum, further studies of gratitude counselling inter¬ventions, and a research-based mindfulness and gratitude relationship.


- Année : 2013 / Volume : 32 / Numéro : 2 / [REGULAR ARTICLE]

- The present study examined the relationship between Active and Passive Spiritual Health Locus of Control (SHLOC) and three dimen¬sions of Social and Religious Capital (social support, interconnectedness, and community participation). Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of a national sample of African Americans. Results indicated that participants with higher Active SHLOC perceived higher amounts of social and religious capital across all three dimensions. The relationship between Passive SHLOC and capital was less consistent. Theoretical and therapeutic implications are discussed.